Cultivation of Carrrot

Carrot (Dancus carota) belongs to the family Umbelliferae. it is a winter season root crops and grown all over India. It is used for human consumption as well as forage and particularly for feeding for horses. It is taken raw as well as cooked in curries and is made into pickles and sweetmeats. It is rich in carotene, a precursor of Vitamin-A and contains appreciable quantities of thiamin and riboflavin.

Carrot is a native of Europe and was found as a weed in America (Bailey, 1928). They were introduced into England during the fifteenth century in the Royal Gardens.

Nutritive Value

The nutritive value of carrot in 100 gm of the edible portion is given below:

Moisture = 86.0 gm ,Protein=0.9 gm, Fat= 0.2 gm, Minerals Fibre= 1.2 gms , Other Carbohydrate = 10.6gms Calories = 47 Calcium = 80.0 mg , Magnesium =14.0 mg, Oxalic acid = 5.0 mg, Phosphorus = 30.0mg , Iron = 2.2 mg , Sodium = 35.6 mg. Potassium = 0.8 mg Copper = 0.13 mg ,Sulphur 27.0 mg Vitamin-A.= 3,150 I.U. Thiamin = 0.04 mg Riboflavin = 0.02 – mg Nicotinic acid =0.6 mg Vitamin-C = 3.0 mg

Climate Requirement for the cultivation of Carrot ;

The carrot is a Winter-season crop. The color, growth, and development of roots are affected by temperature. Carrot which has grown at 10 to 15°C develop a poor color and those grown at 15°C to 20°C will develop good color, Carrot which has grown at higher temperature become shorter and thicker Longest and slender roots are produced at the lowest temperature of 10°C 15°C.

Soil and its preparation

The carrot grows well in well-drained. deep, loose, and loam soil Looseness of soil help in the production of good round shaped roots and the yield is also high. The maximum yield is expected at soil pH 6.5.

Carrot requires loose and deep seedbed for their development. The soil is brought to a fine tilth by giving 6-8 ploughings followed by planking after each ploughing.

Varieties of Carrot;



Variety Characteristics 


Pusa Vrishti

High heat and humidity tolerant tropical carrot. Obtriangular in shape with light purple pigmentation on shoulders and self red clour,90-95 days for harvesting,Av. Root weight 150 – 200 gms, 250 q/hac av.yield. Suitable for the cultivation in NCT


Pusa Kesar 

Developed at the IARI, New Delhi. It has red-coloured roots and self-coloured core. It can tolerate higher temperatures. Suitable for sowing from August – early October. Crop matures in 90-110 days with average yield 30 t/ha.


Pusa Meghali

Developed at IARI, New Delhi; has orange flesh, a self-colored core, and a short top. Suitable for sowing from August- September. The average yield is 25-30 t/ha.


Selection 223

Developed by PAU, Ludhiana. Roots are orange in color with light orange flesh.


 No.2 9

Developed by PAU, Ludhiana. Roots are long tapering and light red in colour.


Kashi Krishna

Attractive black self-core colour roots, tolerant to bolting, fewersecondary roots/scars, suitable for salad, juice, halwa, kanji (fermented juice) and nutraceutical purpose, a rich source of anthocyanin (285 mg/100gFW), phenolics and antioxidants, root yield (20-22 t/ha). S/rate: 4-5 kg/ha.

Temperate Types 

Nantes Half

Long It has cylindrical stumpy roots, orange-scarlet with self colored core, crop matures in 110-120 days.

Temperate Types


Early Nantes

It is a European cultivar. Almost cylindrical roots terminating abruptly in small thin tail. Excellent quality but has a weak brittle top which makes pulling difficult. Due to thin skin and fine texture, it can be stored for a limited period. The crop matures within 90-100 days.

Temperate Types



An excellent cultivar for canning and storage. Roots are attractive orange smooth, thick at the shoulders with gradual tapering. It is more juicy with less fibre content.

Temperate Types



It is a mid-season to late-maturing cultivar with white deep orange roots. Roots are 15-17.5 cm long and 2.4-4.5 cm in diameter with tapering to a slightly rounded end.

Temperate Types



Zeno Popular in Nilgiri hills, high yielding, famous for its quality and flavor. 

Temperate Types


Pusa Yamdagini

Developed at RRS, Katrain. It has orange flesh with self-colored core. The crop matures early by 7-10 days then Early Nantes

Exotic Varieties;

USA; Processing purpose ,Red Cored Chantenay, Danvers Half Long, Imperator.

New Zealand; Akaroa Long Red, Spring Market Improved, Wanganui Giant

Japan ;Suko ;

Belgium ;  Belgian White

France;  Chantenay, Nantes, Oxheart, Touchon

Australia; Red Elephant, Western Red, Yellow

Netherlands;  Early Horn

Sowing of seeds

(a) Time of sowing.

  • Plains Sowing; Carrot is sown from the middle of August to the beginning of December

  • Hills Sowing; Can be Sown from March to the end of July in the hills.

  • Desi type; can be sown up to October from August onwards
  • European Types; The best time of sowing for European types is between September and November.

Several successive sowing, at an interval of 2-4 weeks helps to get a continuous supply.

(b) Seed rate. The normal seed rate is 2.0-2.5 kg per acre. The recommended 2.0 kg per acre of seeds for both Desi and European types.

(c) Method of sowing. Carrot is raised by seed. The seeds are sown on ridges or in flatbeds about 1.5 cm deep. They may be sown by broadcast or in small furrows, mixed with coarse sand or fine soil. Seeds sown on ridges produces a higher yield. The highest total and commercial yields were obtained from 20 x 10 cm spacing. The seeds are covered with soil after sowing. Carrot seeds take about a week 10 germinate.

Manuring Required for the cultivation of Carrot;

A carrot crop yielding about 112-120 quintals per acre It removes 13 kg of Nitrogen, 75 kg of Phosphoric acid, and 40 kg of Potassium

The application of 40 kg Nitrogen, 20 kg Phosphorus, and 20 kg Potassium per acre.or a fertilizer mixture of 32 kg of Nitrogen, 32 kgs of Phosphorus and 16 kg of Potassium is recommended

Application of F.Y.M. one month before sowing and a split application of N, P, and K at 24 kg each per acre to get a higher yield.

Before sowing carrot seeds, seed soak at 0.04 percent MnSo4, 0.02 percent of boric acid or 0.04 percent of Copper nitrate for two hours

Intercultural Operation

Carrot grows slowly at the seedling stage. So the removal of weeds is quite essential, especially at an earlier stage. Certain weedicides are quite effective to control the weeds in a carrot field. Chloroxuron @ 1.35 kg per acre and Linuron @ 0.23 to 0.45 kg per acre effectively controlled weeds.

Afalon applied as pre-emergence weedicide @ 1.0 kg per acre gave good control of broad leaves weed. The soil should be hoed from time to time to allow proper aeration. At the second weeding, thinning in thick sown plants should be done to keep them 5.0 to 7.5 cm (plant to plant) spacing for its proper development.

Irrigation Requirement for the cultivation of Carrot ;

Carrot needs sufficient moisture in the soil throughout its life cycle. Insufficient moisture in soil may decrease the yield. Carrot should be irrigated before any wilting of leaves takes place. The carrot should not be irrigated heavily. Because it will result in excessive foliage growth, poor growth, poor quality roots and maturity will be delayed.

The first irrigation just after the sowing and subsequent irrigation can be started four to six days later after germination. Sprinkling irrigation greatly improved the germination and cut down on water requirement by 20 percent and increased the yield.

Pest and Disease Control in Carrot;

Pest control in Carrot Crop

Insect – Pest



Silver Leaf- White Fly

 The silverleaf whitefly feeds on plants by piercing the phloem or lower leaf surfaces with its mouth and removing nutrients. Affected areas of the plant may develop chlorotic spots, whither, or drop leaves.

Whiteflies can be difficult to control with insecticides. Most less-toxic products such as insecticidal soaps, neem oil, or petroleum-based oils control only those whiteflies that are directly sprayed

Carrot Rust Fly

Damage is caused by larvae burrowing into the taproot. Young plants wilt and may die, but more often the plants are stunted temporarily and the carrots become bulbous, forked, and unmarketable. In addition, fungi and bacteria may invade the damaged tissue and cause severe rot at the crowns of the plants.

Deep ploughing and stirring of  Soil,flooding of fields so that caterpillars are exposed to birds  and other enemies. Hand picking and destruction of caterpillars found just under the damaged plant. Soil application

(drenching) of chlorpyriphos @ 0.1 per cent. Poison baits containing wheat bran + carbaryl + molasses be spread on the ground to attract and kill larvae and Mixing of insecticidal dust


Carrot Weevil

Carrot weevil females overwinter in the soil and plant debris and lay their eggs in cavities in the crown of the carrots. These eggs develop and hatch into larvae and begin to feed on the carrot root. Feeding damage from the carrot weevil larvae causes unmarketable tunneling near the crown of the carrot and can account for significant losses to commercial growers

– Spray lambda-cyhalothrin@34 ml/hac ( first  spray at 2-3-leaf stage when insects or damage appear and spray till the threshold arrived).

– Apply novaluron @166-332 ml /acre hac ( first  spray at 2-3-leaf stage when insects or damage appear and spray till the threshold arrived).

Flea Beetle

Irregular shaped cavities along the length of the taproot of carrot. A trail of tiny feeding sites can sometimes be visible by the traveling down the length of the carrot

– Follow the early planting  -use of insecticidal soaps or oils such as neem or canola oil etc

Disease Control of Carrot;




Cercospora Leaf Blight

Severe blighting on carrot leaves and petioles can be seen if wet weather condition are longer during the growing season The whole  leaves and petioles may die on severely infected carrot plants. The symptoms can be  first observed along the margins of the leaves,  often causing the leaves to curl. Spots inside the leaf edges are small, roughly circular, and tan or gray to brown with a almost dead center.

Two to three years of crop rotation is recommended.

Apply  Foltaf (0.2%), Copper Oxychloride (0.3%), when the first sign of infection appears


Alternaria Blight

leaf spots firstly can be seen at the margin of the leaflets and these are darkish brown to black and are  irregular in shape. The Lesions produced on the petioles and stems are dark brown and often coalesce and girdle the stems. These spots are  more prevalent on older foliage and plants than on young foliage

– hot water treatment of the seeds at 50°C for 15 minutes is recommended.

– Treat the seeds with Thiram (3g/kg of seed) before sowing.

– apply Foltaf (0.2%), Copper Oxychloride (0.3%) for the effective control of disease

Powdery Mildew

The symptoms visible as white powdery growth on the leaves and petioles. Due to which leaves to turn brown and wilt.

Apply the Bavistin (0.1%) or Benlate (0.1%) at an interval of 8-10 days for the effective control of  the powdery mildew

Watery soft Rot

white mold appears  with  an black sclerotia on the crown of infected carrots. During the carrot storage, a soft, watery rot with white mold and black sclerotia

characterizes the disease. This disease more appers in the late sowing crop and during the storage of the carrot

This disease  can be control by the Crop rotation and the  weed control (to improve air circulation),Other factors are  planting of carrot on raised beds, winter

flooding, rapid cooling before the storage and proper sanitation of stores are necessary to reduce losses from this disease.

Black Rot

This is a seed and soil-borne  disease and is characterized by a shiny black decay at the crown area and a greenish-black mold on the taproot. The infected tissue of the root became greenish black to jet black due to the black spore masses. This disease may appear roots in the field well as in storage

Properly sanitation of the field  and adopting the crop rotation helps to keep the disease under control. The root surface should kept dry and stored at 0 C with 95 % relative humidity

Bacterial soft Rot

This disease appear due to wet field conations and  improper storage. The  Soft water-soaked, irregular lesions are visible on the roots. These lesions are superficial but fast spread to cover the inner tissues. The leaves may remain green until the disease on the tuber advances considerably. The whole of the plant gets wilts under the complete rotting of the tuber. A foul smell is given out from the decayed roots. High moisture on the root surface favours disease incidence chances

Planting on raised beds in poorly drained areas should be followed A Careful harvest handling, grading and sanitation are the only ways to reduce the infection chances. The diseased roots should be avoided to be stored along with the healthy tubers. The root surface should kept dry and stored at 0 C with 95 % relative humidity

























































When the roots of carrot are 2.5 to 3.7 cm in diameter at the upper end. they may be harvested. They are normally harvested, when the soil is sufficiently moist, with a spade or khurpi after removing the tops which are close to the ground The roots are trimmed and washed in water and then they send to the market.


Carrot may remain fairly fresh for 3-4 days at ordinary temperature, They could be stored only at 12°C for a long period without loss of quality. It can be stored in cold storage at 33°F to 40°F with 93 to 98 percent relative humidity.

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