Beetroot cultivation in India

Beetroot cultivation in India 

Beetroot ( Beta Vulgaris L. ) belongs to the family  Chenopodiaceae Beetroot is a root vegetable it is used as a fleshy vegetable and is also grown for processing Beet is eaten raw as a salad and cooked with other vegetables also it keeps the body cool and removes constipation Beetroot is a biennial crop
Beetroot was well known in ancient Greece and Rome, but it was the leaves that were eaten. The native place of beet is probably the Mediterranean region of Europe or around Western Asia and Africa

Nutritive Value of Beetroot ;
The nutritive value of 100 gram edible portion is as follows ;
Moisture = 87.7 gms , Protein = 1.7 gms  ,Fat = 0.1 gms Minerals = 0.8 gms, Fibre = 0.9 gms,Other Carbohydrate = 8.8 gms , Calories= 43 mg Calcium = 200.0 mg, Magnesium = 9.0 mg ,Oxalic acid = 40.0  mg ,Phosphorus = 55.0 mg, Iron = 0.4, Sodium = 59.8 , Potassium =43 mg, Copper= 0.20 mg Sulphur = 14.0 mg,Vitamin-A= nil ,Thiamine= 0.04, Riboflavin = 0.09 mg , Nicotinic acid = 0.4 mg ,Vitamin=C 88.0 mg
 Climatic Requirement for Beet Cultivation ;
Beetroot performs well in a cool climate, but can also be grown in warm weather. The size, quality, and color of the beetroot may be somewhat inferior under warm conditions. Beetroot grows well at a temperature of 20°C. Beet can be grown well in warm weather, but the best quality beetroot is produced under the cool weather condition 
Soil and its preparation for Beetroot Cultivation;
Beet can be grown well on all types of soil except clay soil. But loam, sandy loam, and clay loam soils are quite favorable for this crop. Beetroot plant is sensitive to acid soil.  The yield of beet increases when the acidity is reduced from pH 5.0 to 5.8.
Beet requires a fine seedbed. The soil is brought to a fine tilth by giving 5 to 6 ploughings followed by planking after each ploughing.
Varites of Beetroot Cultivated in India ;
Detroit Dark Red: Its roots is round with smooth uniform deep red color skin and have a medium crown. The flesh of Detroit is dark blood red with light red zoning, it is a heavy yielder with a maturity period of 80-100 days. 
Crimson Globe: Its roots are flattened round. The outer skin is medium red and the flesh is a crimson red color it does not have zonations; The maturity period of the crimson globe is 55-60 days.
Early Wonder: Roots flat and globular with dark red skin and dark red flesh and light red zoning. 
Ooty-1: This variety is developed by TNAU it has round roots with blood red flesh color. The yield potential of this variety is around 28 t/ha its maturity period is 120 days, it sets seeds under Nilgiris conditions. 
Crosby Egyptian: Roots flat globe with dark purplish-red flesh. The maturity period of Crosby is  55-60 days. it produces white zoning under warm weather. 
Other Varieties ; Madhur, Ruby Queen, and Ruby Red 
Sowing of  Seed ;
(a) Time of Sowing Seed. Sowing should be done by the first fortnight of October. But sowing can be done from Mid. August to Mid. December in the plains and March to May in the hills.
(b) Seed rate. The seed rate is 3-4 kg per acre. Transplanting of seedling raised in well-prepared seedbed with a seed of 2-2.5 kg per acre may also be done.
(c) Method of Sowing Seed. Seeds are sown in ridges at a distance of 45 cm with a plant spacing of 10-12 cm and at a depth of 4-5 cm seeds may also be sown in the leveled seed-bed. It is better to sow the soaked seed for 8-10 hours for better germination. 
Manuring in beetroot;
Beet responds well to manuring. Beet requires 40 kg Nitrogen, 20 kg Phosphoric acid, and 20 kg Potassium per acre. All quantities of Nitrogen and Phosphoric acid and half of the Nitrogen should be applied as a basal dressing with the last preparatory tillage. The remaining half of Nitrogen is to be applied as top-dressing at 30-35 days after sowing. In addition, 10 tonnes of well decomposed farmyard maure should be mixed thoroughly at time of field preparation . Beet suffers very much from boron deficiency. Boron deficiency is most likely to occur on neutral or alkaline soils. Borax @ 2-5 kg per acre is recommended to correct the deficiency .
 Intercultural Operations in Beetroot;
Weeding, thinning, and earthing up is the most important intercultural operation of sugarbeet. Three to four seedlings come up from each seedball and only one is kept by plucking off the remaining one. Thinning is done when the seedlings are three to four-leaved. 
Irrigation in beetroot;
First irrigation is given just after sowing of seed and subsequent irrigations are given at intervals of 15 to 20 days depending upon the soil type. 
Harvesting of beetroot;
The crop takes about 6 to 7 months to mature and become ready for harvest in March-April. The crop is harvested by digging with a spade or by the country plough. 
The yield varies from 5,000 to 7,000 kg per acre.

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