Dry or Semi-Dry Upland Rice Cultivation in India
In India Rice is cultivated on two types of soil ie upland and lowlands. The system of rice cultivation depends upon largely such as the situation of the land, type of soil, irrigation resources availability of laborers, intensity, and distribution of rainfall, etc
The following are the Principal system of rice cultivation;
1) Dry or Semi-Dry Upland Cultivation
a) Broadcasting the seeds
b) Drilling or sowing the seed behind the plough
2) Wet or Lowland Cultivation
a) Transplanted in Puddled soil
b) Broadcasting the seeds in Puddled soils
Here we will discuss only dry or semi-upland cultivation of rice
Dry or Semi-Dry Upland Cultivation of Rice;
The large area of the states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand of Tamil Nadu, and some parts of Andhra Pradesh is under rainfed uplands situations.
There is a lack of irrigation facilities and the crop depends entirely on rain In such areas farmers generally grow short-duration (up to 100 days) indigenous varieties with little inputs and harvest only 10-12 quintals of paddy per hectare. By using improved dwarf varieties and new and new technology the farmers can take higher yields. Following are some important points of cultivation
Selection of Varieties;
Short-duration varieties of up to 100 must be selected.
After harvesting the Rabi crops in April-May, the fields should be ploughed with soil turning plough. This is helpful in wood eradication well as improvement in the water-holding capacity of the soil.
The field should be prepared and bunds should be made around the field just after the first shower of the monsoon. This will check the loss of rain water by run-off.
Seed and Sowing;
When the field is in the right condition, broadcast the seeds Mix seeds in the soil with the help of a local plough or disc harrow. Use about 100 kg seed per hectare.
b) Sowing Seed behind the Plough or Drilling
Drill the seed with a seed drill or behind the plough with the help of a funnel in rows after applying fertilizer. The row-to-row distance should be 20 centimeters. About 60 kg of seed is sufficient for one hectare
1) A good crop of upland rice may be taken by applying 60 kg of nitrogen, 30 kg of phosphorus, and 30 kg of potassium per hectare
2) The total quantity of phosphorus and potash and 25% of nitrogen should be drilled in the soil at the time of land preparation
3) Ferti seed drill may be used for sowing of seed and placement of soil
4) After 35-40 sowing or at tillering stage top-dress 50% of the total nitrogen The remaining 25 % of nitrogen may be top-dressed at the panicle initiation stage
Weeding and Hoeing;
In upland rice cultivation weeds are the major problem hence effective weed control is very important from the beginning. Apply Banthiocarp @ 2kg ai per hectare six to seven days after the seeding of rice. It should be followed by one manual weeding 40-45 days after sowing.
Disease and Pest Control;
Disease and pest control measures for dry or semi-dry upland rice are similar to that for transplanted rice