Sorghum ((Sorghum bicolor L) or Jwoar Cultivation in India

Sorghum ((Sorghum bicolor L) or Jwoar Cultivation in India


Sorghum or Jwoar  (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is an annual grain crop that belongs to the family Gramineae  It is one of the five major food grains of the world after Rice, Wheat, Maize, and Barley. Millions of poor people in the semiarid tropics regions of Africa and Asia depend on sorghum as their staple food. In addition, fodder and stover are fed to millions of animals providing milk and meat for man. It is also used as industrial raw material in various industries in developed countries.

The USA is the World’s leading producer of sorghum, with a total production of 11.5 million metric tonnes followed by India, Nigeria, Mexico, Ethiopia, Sudan, China, Argentina, Australia, and Brazil.
 In India, Sorghum has been cultivated in an area of 17.65 lakh ha and has a production of 4.7 lakh tonnes during Kharif 2019-2020 with productivity of one metric tonne per hectare  Among the states, Rajasthan stood first in jowar acreage with 5.75 lakh hectares followed by Maharashtra (3.13 lakh hectares), Madhya Pradesh (2.51 lakh hectares)
Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh are the important sorghum-growing states 

Vernacular Names of Sorghum or Jwoar;

Hindi; Jwoar

Marathi; Jwari
Tamil; Cholam
Kannada; Jola
Telugu; Jonnanlu
Other common names are; Durra, Egyptian Millet, Feterita, Guinea Corn, Milo, Shallu, Sudan grass,Gaoliang, Great millet, Kafir Corn, Dura, Dari, Mtama, and Solam

Importance of Sorghum Crop;

1) Sorghum (jwoar) ranks third in the major food grain crop of our country. 
2) Besides being a major source of staple food for humans, it serves as an important source of cattle feed and fodder. 
2) It has the potential to compete effectively with crops like maize under good environmental and management conditions. 3) The greatest merit of sorghum is that it has the capacity to withstand drought. 
4) Its performance is better than maize in marginal lands under moisture stress or excessive moisture conditions. 
5) It is one of the most widely grown dryland food grains in India. 
6) It does well even in low-rainfall areas. It makes comparatively quick growth and gives not only good yields of grain but also very large quantities of fodder.
7) Sorghum grain is eaten by human beings in India either by breaking the grain and cooking it in the same way as rice or by grinding it into flour and preparing ‘chapaties’. 
8) Up to some extent, it is also eaten as parched and popped grain.
9) This grain is also fed to cattle, poultry, and swine. 
10) It is also used for ethanol production, producing grain alcohol, and starch production
11) Sorghum is also used as a raw material for the production of adhesives and paper other than being used as food and feed for livestock

Nutritive Value of Sorghum;

100 gms of Sorghum grain contains; 






11 g


329 kcal


72 g


2.5 g


6.7 g


13 mg


3.5 g


3.36 mg


329 Kcal


363 mg

 therefore, it can satisfactorily replace other grains in the feeding program for dairy cattle, poultry, and swine.
Classification of Sorghum or Jowar
The system partitions the variations in Sorghum bicolor (Linn) Moench into the following races:
(a) Basic Races
1. bicolor, 2. guinea, J. candatum, 4. kafir, 5. durra.
(b) Hybrid Races
I. guinea bicolor, 2. caudatumbicolor. 3. kafir-bicolor, 4. durrabicolor, 5. ruined caudatum, 6. Ruinea kafir. 7. guinea durra, 8. kafir datum. 9. lurra caudatum, 10. kafir-durra.
The above 15 races of cultivated sorghum can be identified by mature spikelets alone although the head type is sometimes helpful. The classification is based on five fundamental spikelet types – bicolor, guinea, caudatum kafir, and dura 

Climatic Requirements for Sorghum or Jowar Cultivation;

1) Sorghum requires a warm climate but can be grown under a wide range of conditions.

2)  It is grown from sea level to as high as 1500 meters 
3) Sorghum plants can tolerate high temperatures throughout their life cycle better than any other cereal crop. 
4) It can tolerate drought conditions very well because it remains dormant during moisture-stress conditions but resumes growth when favorable conditions reappear. 
5) It has a high resistance to desiccation, a low transpiration ratio, and a large number of fibrous roots. 
6) It can also tolerate waterlogging conditions better than any other cereal except rice. Therefore, sorghum can be grown successfully in areas having an average annual rainfall between 60 and 100 cm.
7) It is grown as a Kharif crop in northern India. In the western and southern parts of the country, it is grown also as a Rabi crop. 8) The minimum temperature for the germination of sorghum seeds is 7-10°C. It needs about 26-30°C temperature for its optimum growth. 
9) Sorghum is a short-day plant. Flowering is hastened by short days and delayed by long days.
10)The time of heading in sorghum is influenced by temperature as well as photoperiod. 
11) Sorghum varieties vary in their sensitivity to both temperature and photoperiod.

Soils Requirements for Sorghum or Jowar Cultivation;

1) Sorghum is grown in a variety of soils in India. Soils with clay loam or loam texture, having good water retention capacity are best suited for sorghum cultivation. 

2) It does not thrive in sandy soils but does better on heavier soils.
3) It does well in the pH range of 6.0-8.5 as it tolerates considerable salinity and alkalinity. 
4) The black cotton soils of Central India are very good for their cultivation.

Important Varieties of Sorghum or Jowar;

S. No


Recommended for the states of




CSH 26

Maharashtra, Karnataka, MP, South Gujarat, and north AP & TN

Kharif Hybrid, 205 cm ht, White midrib color, semi-erect leaves, semi-compact panicle. Tolerant to Charcoal rot, Ergot, Rust, shoot fly, aphids and stem borer.


CSH 27

Rajasthan, North Gujarat, UP, AP and Tamil Nadu

Kharif Hybrid, 205 cm ht, Tan plant color with a cylindrical semi compact panicle and white bold elliptical seed. Medium maturity group. Tolerant to grain mould disease under natural conditions


CSH 28

Maharashtra , Karnataka, MP, South Gujarat, and north AP (Zone II)

Kharif Hybrid, 203 cms, medium tall, Medium Maturity, Long bold panicle, bold grains, tolerant to shoot fly and grain mold. High grain and fodder yields, high response to nitrogen fertilizer.


CSH 29

Maharashtra , Karnataka, MP, South Gujarat, and north AP (Zone II)

Kharif Hybrid, 220 Cm tall, White midrib colour, semi- erect leaves, semi- compact panicle, lustrous grain, Medium maturity, Resistant to foliar diseases, moderately resistant to grain mold.


CSH 30

Maharashtra, Karnataka, MP, South Gujarat,             North AP  under rainfed Kharif cultivation

Resistant to lodging. Non-shattering. Tan, 216 cm tall, plant color with symmetric semi- compact panicle and white bold elliptical seed.



All rabi sorghum growing states of India

Rabi hybrid with high grain yield and fodder yield. Tolerant to drought.


CSH 32

Maharashtra , Karnataka, MP, South Gujarat, and north AP

Kharif hybrid, 221 cm tall, White midrib colour, semi erect leaves, semi compact panicle, Tolerant to Charcoal rot, Ergot, Rust, shoot fly, aphids and stem borer. Non-lodging, & non-shattering, highly responsive for Deep soils.


CSH 33

Rajasthan, UP, North Gujarat, South Andhra Pradesh & TN

Kharif hybrid, 185 cm, early maturity, well exerted compact panicle, medium bold grain, Non-lodging, & non shattering tolerant to major pests and diseases.


CSH 34

Maharashtra , Karnataka, MP, AP, Chattisgarh Gujarat, and Rajasthan

Kharif hybrid, 210 cm tall, medium maturity, ear head – semi compact,, awn less, long bulging panicle, board in upper part to symmetrical in shape, white medium length stigma, creamy white medium bold grain, resistant to downy mildew, under natural conditions escapes grainmold due to little bit more maturity duration.


CSH 35

Maharashtra , Karnataka, MP, South Gujarat, and Telangana

Kharif hybrid, 215 cm tall, medium maturity, ear head – semi compact, oblong with tapering apex; internodes covered by leaf sheath, dull green mid rib, non-lodging non shattering, moderately tolerant to major pests and diseases.




All sorghum growing areas of India.

Sweet sorghum variety


CSV 26 R

Rabi season. Under shallow soil conditions of rabi sorghum growing areas of India.

Medium tall (183 cm) semi compact ear head, pearly white, lustrous seed, tolerant to charcoal rot shoot fly, stem borer, shoot bug and sugarcane aphid And  tolerant to terminal drought


CSV 27

All sorghum growing areas of India.

Dual purpose kharif variety resistance to grain moulds non-lodging & non-shattering



Rabi sorghum growing areas of Maharashtra,  Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh under Deep black soils

Tall (210 cm), semi compact cylindrical ear head, pearly white, lustrous seed, tolerant to charcoal rot,  shoot fly, stem borer,shoot bug and sugarcane aphid.



All forage sorghum growing areas of India.

Forage Sorghum, Goose neck tendency of panicle observed sometimes due to environmental fluctuations


CSV 31

Under rainfed conditions in Kharif season in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan and Gujarat

Kharif variety, 210-250 cm tall, juicy stem, white colour mid-rib, waxy bloom, seni-compact symmetric panicle, pearly white seed and grey yellow endospem, tolerant to grain mold and resistant to anthracnose and leaf blight.



All forage sorghum growing areas of Maharashtra, Tamilnadu and Karnataka (Zone II)

Forage Sorghum



All forage sorghum growing states (Zone-1&II)

Forage Sorghum, Tall, thin stem, high tillering , first cut after 62 days subsequent cut after 50 days, 1039 q/ha  green fodder yield, 280 q/ha dry fodder yield resistant to leaf blight, anthracnose

Source; AICRP

Rotations and Mixed Cropping

Most of the high-yielding varieties and hybrids of sorghum mature in about 90-120 days, and they fit very well in multiple crop rotations and mixed cropping. Some of the rotations with sorghum are given below: North India

North – India

South – India

Jowar- Wheat

Jowar – Cotton

Jowar-Wheat- Cheena

Jowar – Jowar( Rabi)


Jowar – Tobacco


Ground Nut – Jowar(Rabi)

Jowar-  Gram

Jowar – Ragi Groundnut


Jowar – Cotton – Groundnut

Jowar-Potato – Wheat


Mixed cropping of sorghum+soybean, sorghum – Aarhar, sorghum + moong, and sorghum +urd have been found to be more profitable in north India. Sorghum hybrids have been found to be more suitable for mixed cropping.

Field Preparation for Sorghum or Jowar Cultivation;

1) Sorghum seed should be drilled in a well-prepared seedbed free from weeds.

2)The first ploughing should be done with soil turning plough so that 20-25 centimeter deep soil may become loose. 
3) It should be followed by two to three harrowings or three to four intercrossing ploughings with country plough. 
4) Thereafter planking should be done to break the clods and to level the field. 
5) In black cotton soil areas, if the land is badly infested with weeds, ploughing followed by harrowings is usually practiced, but where land is free from weeds or with few weeds, the land is cultivated only with bakhar (blade harrow).

Seed and Sowing of Sorghum or Jowar Crop;

The seed should be purchased from a reliable source. Always use certified seed. If the seed is not already treated, treat it with Thiram or Agrosan G.N. at the rate of 3 g per kg seed. In the case of hybrids use a new hybrid seed every year.
(1) Seed Rate and Spacing 

(a) To ensure a good stand 12-15 kg of seed per hectare is considered sufficient. 
(b) There should be 1,50,000 plants per hectare to attain maximum yield. 
(c) The seed should be sown in rows 45 centimeters apart. Plant to plant distance should be 12 centimeters. 
(d) Seed should be sown at a depth of 3-4 centimeters. It should not be sown more than 5 centimeters deep in any case.
(2) Method of Sowing
Northern India jowar is sown either by broadcasting or in rows
behind the plough. Seeds of new hybrids and varieties should be sown in lines for obtaining higher yields. Sowing in rows is common in black cotton soil.
(3) Time of Sowing;
In India sorghum is grown in the following three seasons 
(1) Kharif; June-July 
(2) Rabi; Mid-September-Mid-October 
(3) Summer
1) Mid-January-Mid-February In northern India sorghum is sown only in Kharif season. 
2) In irrigated areas, the first week of July has been found most suitable for the sowing of most hybrids and improved varieties. 
3) Under unirrigated conditions, sewing should be done preferably within a week of the onset of the first onset of showers.
4) Timely planted crop escapes the damage due to shoot fly and midge. Late planting may not fit well in multiple rotations.
5) Rabi sowing is done mainly in Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. 
5) Rabi sowing should be done from the second fortnight of September to the middle of October
6) Summer crop of sorghum is sown in the month of January and February in irrigated areas of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and some areas of Karnataka.

Manures and Fertilizers Requirement in sorghum or Jowar Cultivation ;

Sorghum Crop at Flowering Stage

1) Sorghum requires heavy doses of fertilizers because it removes nutrients in a heavy amount from the soil.

2) Manures and fertilizers both play important roles in sorghum cultivation. 
3) In rainfed areas, the application of farmyard manure or compost at the rate of 10 to 15 tonnes per hectare improves the water-holding capacity and microbial activities in the soil. besides providing essential nutrients to the crop.
4) Farmyard manure or compost should be added to the field at the time of the last ploughing.
5) The quantity of fertilizers to be applied varies according to the fertility status of the soil. However, when soil test data are not available, apply 100-120 kg nitrogen, 50 kg P205, and 40 kg K20 per hectare for hybrids and improved varieties of sorghum 
6) Under the irrigated condition. Half a dose of nitrogen and the total amount of phosphorus and potash should be applied at the time of sowing. 
7) The basal dressing can be done with the help of fertiliser-cum-seed drill. 
8) The fertilizer should be placed 3-5 centimeters to the side and 3-5 centimeters below the seed.
9) If a ferti-seed drill is not available fertilizer mixture may be spread uniformly in the field and mixed thoroughly in the soil with the help of a harrow or cultivator.
10) The remaining hall quantity of nitrogen should be top-dressed after 30 – 35 days of sowing. 
11) In light soils topdressing should be done in two splits. Half of the above dose should be applied in the case of local varieties for better results. In the case of the rained crop, the quantity of fertilizer should be reduced to  half of the irrigated and the entire quantity should be applied 10 cm deep in the soil at the time of sowing 
Sorghum plants manifest the nutritional deficiency of nitrogen, phosphorous, potash, iron, and Zinc which are briefly given below ;
Nitrogen; Tips of lower leaves are first to show yellowing. If nitrogen deficiency persists the yellowing will follow up the leaf midrib in a typical ‘V’ shaped pattern After some time the entire leaf turns yellow, it dies and dries up.
Phosphorus; Plants show stunted growth and leaf tip and leaf margins turn dark to light purple in color.
Potash; The marginal discoloration along the edges of older leaves Continues from top to the base of the leaf. In severe cases, the marginal discolored area becomes dry and scorched. Eventually leaf edges and top dry leaving small areas at the bases and midrib alive and green
Iron; Sorghum is most sensitive to iron deficiency. Iron chlorosis can be identified by interveinal chlorosis which extends to the full length of leaves.
Zinc; Broadband of bleached tissue on each side of the midrib. The midrib and leaf margin remain green. Stunted growth and short internodes.
1) Thinning is a very important operation in sorghum cultivation for maintaining desired plant population.
2) Ensure 12-15 centimeters of plant-to-plant spacing in a row by thinning out extra plants at two stages. First, thinning should be done 10-15 days after emergence, and second, when the crop is 20-25 days old.
3) All disease and insect-infested plants should be removed while thinning.

Water Management in Sorghum or Jowar Crop;

1) Usually, sorghum is grown as a rainfed crop. 

2) The irrigation should, however, be provided whenever rains are not received. 
3) At the time of flowering and grain filling stages, the crop requires more water. If enough moisture is not there in the soil at the time of flowering and grain filling should be irrigated at once. 
4) At no stage, the plants should be allowed to wilt.
5) Suitable drainage conditions should be provided for the removal of excess rainwater from the field.

Weed Control in Sorghum or Jowar Crop;

1) During Kharif season both grassy and broad-leaved weeds grow with sorghum crops. 

2) They cause severe crop-weed competition. In case the seeds are not brought under control at the right time, there is a 20-60 % reduction in yield. 
3) Sorghum crop is infested with Echinochloa column,
Echinochloa crusgulli (sawan), Dactyloctenium argypricum (makra), Elusine indica (kodo). Setaria glauca (bandrabapdri) Cyperus rotundus (Motha). Sorghum halepanse (banchari), Cynodon dactylon (doob) and Phragmatite kurka (narkul).
4) Weeds should be removed with the help of khurpi or hand hoe when the crop is about three weeks old. 
5) In the case of manual weeding is not possible to use Atrazine at the rate of 0.5 to 1.0 kg active ingredient per hectare. This herbicide should be used as pre-emergence. The weedicide should be mixed in 800-1000 liters of water and evenly sprayed on the soil surface just after sowing. There should be enough moisture in the soil at the time of spraying. Care should be taken that the seedbed is well prepared and does not contain clods and any emerging weed. 
6) The field should not be disturbed for initial 3-4 weeks.

Diseases and Pest Management in Sorghum or Jwoar Crop;

a) Disease Management in Sorghum or Jwoar;
Sorghum crop suffers from a number of diseases resulting in a considerable loss in yield. Symptoms of important diseases and their suitable control measures are given below:
a) Seed Decay and Seedling Blight;
The seeds that may look apparently healthy usually harbor several fungi, either inside or on the surface. These fungi not only decrease germination but also cause different types of seedling blights. The fungi of the seed or surrounding soil may attack the shoot and root causing the death of seedlings. In some cases, seedlings are infected at the collar region and near the roots, turning these parts dark brown and thereby causing wilting and eventually death.
These diseases can be controlled by treating the seed with Thiram, Agrosan G.N. at the rate of 2 g per kg of seed.
b) Downy Mildew;
On the young leaves downy whitish growth, mostly on the lower surface with yellowing on the corresponding upper surface is seen. Such leaves become shredded in due course. If the infection takes place during the early stages of plant growth, the plants become severely stunted and ears do not form.
Control Measures;

(a) Seed treatment of seed with Agrosan G.N. or Ceresan at the rate of 2.5 g per kg seed. 
(b) Spraying with Zineb and Maneb (Dithane M-45) 0.2 %
(c) Burning of crop residue. 
(d) Growing resistant varieties.
c) Leaf Rust;
This disease is caused by Puccinia purpurea. It is more common in southern parts of India than in the northern parts. The intensity of infection is high in warmer regions with higher relative humidity Rust may appear at any stage but it is more severe after the flag leaf stage. The infection starts on the lower leaves, especially towards margins and tips. Postules are formed mainly on the lower surface. Reddish or purplish discoloration around the pustules is prominently seen. Due to the production of rust spores, a light brown dust-like coating is seen on the infected leaves
Control Measures;
1) The disease is controlled by two sprayings of Dithane Z-78 at the rate of 0.2 % at 10-15 days intervals 
 Also, resistant varieties like CSH-1, CSH-2, can be grown.
d) Anthracnose ;
It is caused by Colletotrichum graminicola. It affects seedlings as well as matured plants. Small red-purple or brown spots with whitish or purple centers occur on lower leaves. Later, black dot-like fungal fruiting bodies (acervuli) appear in the center of the spot.
Control Measures;
(a) Treat the seed with Agrosan G.N. at the rate of 2.5 g per kg of seed. 
(b) Spray the crop with Zineb at the rate of 0.2 % at 10 days
intervals at 30, 45, and 60 days after planting. 
(c) Grow resistant varieties like CSH-1 and CSH-2.
e) Leaf Blight;
It is caused by Helminthosporium turcicum. The pathogen is known to cause seed rot and seedling blight of sorghum. 
On the young leaves, lesions are small, narrow, and water-soaked. Later on, these become elongated along with the length of the leaf and turn into straw color or brown with dark margins. The colors of the lesions are yellow, red, or black, depending on the cultivar.
Control Measures;
Same as described for Anthracnose disease.
f) Zonate Leaf Spot;
This disease is caused by Gleocercospora sorghi. The disease is quite severe in the northern and central parts of the country. The spots first appear as small red to brown water-soaked lesions. Later such spots become dark-colored and form large zonate semi-circular or irregular lesions extending across the leaf blade.
Control Measures; 
(a) Seed treatment with Agrosan G.N. at the rate of 2.5 g per kg. seed. (b) Spray crop with Zineb at the rate of 0.2 percent.
g) Grey or Cercospora 
Leaf Spot;
It is caused by Cercospora sorghi. Severe infection of the disease leads to drying of the leaves. The spots are seen on both surfaces of leaves as isolated rectangular lesions, which are mostly confined between veins. The spots may be red, purple, brown, or straw-colored
Control Measures;
Spraying with Zineb at the rate of 0.2 percent has given satisfactory control of this disease. Three sprays after 30, 45, and 60 days of planting may be sufficient
h) Grain Smut;
This disease is caused by Sphacelotheca sorghi. The disease is quite destructive but can be controlled easily. Symptoms become visible at the time of grain formation in the car. Smut sori are formed in place of healthy grains and are scattered on the ears. They are generally larger than the normal grains.
Control Measures;
The disease can be completely controlled by seed treatment with Agrosan G.N. (0.2 percent) or Thiram slurry (0.1 percent).
I) Loose Smut;
It is caused by Sphacelotheca cruenta. The affected plants are stunted. produce thinner stalks, more tillers, and flowers earlier than healthy plants. All spikelets of an infected ear are malformed and hypertrophied. The affected car appears like a mass of leafy or leathery structures.
Control Measures;
Control measures of this disease are the same as for grain smut.
j) Ear Moulds;
Several fungi can grow on developing ears of sorghum when the grain setting coincides with rains or excessive humidity. The infection is more severe on grains if damaged by the head bug. The infected seeds lose their market value and show poor germination. 
To control the disease grow early maturing varieties.
b) Insect Pests Management;
Sorghum crop is subject to attack by a number of insect pests. A brief description of the major ones, their nature of the damage, and appropriate control measures are as under:
a) Sorghum Shoot Fly
It is a major pest of sorghum, attacking in the early seedling stage of plant growth. Plants up to three weeks of age are more susceptible to this pest. The fly lays oval white eggs on the lower surface of the leaves, stem, or soil near the base of plants. Within two days or so, the eggs hatch, and the tiny maggots creep down under the leaf sheaths and cut the central growing point of the plant which results in the dead heart’. The pest is so serious that sometimes re-sowing may be required.
Control Measures;
In areas where it is serious, use Thimet 10 G at the rate of 20 kg per hectare or Disyston 5 G or Furadan 3 G at the rate of 25 kg per hectare or Temik 10 G at the rate of 20 kg per hectare in furrows or as broadcast before sowing
If the above chemicals are not applied at the time of sowing, spray the crop with 0.025 percent Metasystox a week after germination and repeat the spraying after 15 days.
b) Stem Borer ;
This pest attacks sorghum crops throughout the growing season. In an early stage of the crop, larvae bore inside the tender stem and feed on the tissues resulting in the death of the growing point which is commonly known as the ‘dead heart’. Grown-up plants are not killed but suffer in vigor, and develop weak heads. It causes damage up to 80 percent. The caterpillars that feed on tender parts of the plant are cylindrical and yellowish-brown when fully grown and are about 2.5 centimeters long.
Control Measures;
Use a higher seed rate and pull all the affected plants in an early stage of the crop. Spray the crop with 0.1 percent Thiodan 35 EC or 0.2 percent Sevin 50 WP after 15 days of germination followed by the application of the Thiodan 4 G or Sevin 4 G granules in the whorl of the plants at the rate of 15 kg per hectare just after a fortnight of spraying.
c) Pink Borer;
The adult is stout, straw-colored with faint forewings. A fully grown caterpillar is 2.5 centimeters in length and pink in color on the dorsum while its ventrum is white. Caterpillars bore into the stem or shoot. The dead heart is formed in the early stage of the crop.
Control Measures;
Spray 0.1 percent Thiodan 35 EC or 0.2 percent Carbaryl 15 to 20 days after germination. Repeat the spraying, if necessary.
d) Sorghum Midge;
It is one of the most widely distributed and important pests of sorghum. The fly lays its eggs in the flowers and the larvae develop on their ovary Which shrivels fail to bear grains in the spikelet  Due to its infestation grain fails to develop and in cases of severe attack the whole head may be damaged resulting in a significant loss in the production of Sorghum Control Measures;
 (a) plant pure and uniform seeds so that all plants come in flowering at the same time 
(b) Destroy the crop debris in the field by burning
(c ) Apply 5% Carbaryl or Malathion dust at the rate of 25 kg/ha or spray the crop with 0.1% Carharyl at the rate of 600 liters per hectare.
e) Leaf Roller ;
The caterpillar is slender yellowish green warm but is pinkish when fully Red  Eggs are laid by the female moth on the tip of the leaf Caterpillar after hatching moves about and folds or rolls up the leaf hy bringing the two margins closely with the help of silken thread and hides and feeds inside this roll. Due to this the feeding leaf becomes white papery in appearance
Control Measures 
(a) Dust the crop with 5 percent BHC dust at the rate of 25 kg per hectare 
(b) Spray the crop with Nuvan 100 EC at the rate of 1 milliliter per4 liter of water
f) Sorghum Ear Head Bug
Both adults, as well as nymphs, suck the milky juice of the developing grains due to which the grains remain chalky or shriveled. When a large number of nymphs feed, the whole earhead may become blackened at first and may eventually dry up, producing no grains.
Control Measures
(a) Remove all the plants of wild sorghum in the surroundings. (b) Dust the crop with 5 per cent Lindane, Carharyl, or Malathion dust at the rate of 20 kg per hectare.
g) Hairy Caterpillar;
There are about seven species of hairy caterpillars which feed on sorghum. They are all polyphagous and feed on different crops and wild weeds. They are called hairy caterpillar because they have profuse hairy growth on their body. The adults emerge after good monsoon showers and the females after mating lay eggs in clusters on the leaves of wild as well as cultivated plants. These eggs hatch within three to four days. The tiny larvae feed gregariously on the same plant for some days and then  migrate to other plants and feed on the leaves plays Leaving only their veins
Control Measures
(a) Egg masses should be collected and destroyed. 
(b) The light traps should be used as soon as the moths are visible after the rains start. 
(c) Folidol 2 %dust at the rate of 25-30 kg per hectare in the early stages. In later stages spray 0.1 % Thiodan 35 EC or Fenitrothion at the rate of 500 liters of solution per hectare. It is advisable to mix 2 % detergent powder to the solution. This is helpful in increasing the efficacy of insecticide as it helps in setting the hairs on the body of caterpillars and allowing more chemicals to penetrate the insect body.

Harvesting and Threshing;

1) Most of the high-yielding sorghum hybrids and varieties take about 100-115 days to mature

2)The crop should be harvested immediately after it is mature. 3) The right stage for harvest is when grains have become hard having less than 25 % moisture
4) Do not wait for stalks and leaves to dry because plants of hybrid sorghum appear green even after the crop is mature. 
5) Harvesting is done by cutting the entire plant or removing the ear heads first and cutting down the plants later on. 
6) In the areas where there is a danger of rain at the time of harvesting, the mature earheads should be harvested first and plants cut and heaped later on.
7) Threshing is done with the help of threshers or by beating the earheads with sticks or trampling bullocks. 
8) The threshed grain should be clean and dried in the sun for about a week to bring the moisture content down to 13-15 percent for safe storage.

The Yield of Sorghum or Jwoar Crop;

with improved agronomic practices, it is possible to harvest nearly 50 quintals of grain and about 100-125 quintals of dry stover from a hectare under irrigated conditions and about 25-30 quintals of grain and about 80-100 quintals of dry stover from a rainfed crop.

One thought on “Sorghum ((Sorghum bicolor L) or Jwoar Cultivation in India

  • September 23, 2023 at 1:01 pm

    Thanks for every other wonderful post. Where else may anybody get that kind of info in such an ideal means of writing? I’ve a presentation next week, and I’m at the search for such information.


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