Cultivation of Okra ; Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench.


Okara (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) is a warm-season flowering plant that belongs to the family Malvaceae.

It is cultivated throughout tropical and warm temperate regions of the world for its edible green fruits It is also known as lady’s finger, okra, bamia, and gumbo.

Okra originated in tropical and subtropical Africa. The existence of a large number of related species with wide variability and dominant characters suggest a possible role of India as a secondary center of origin


Okra crop duration ranges 90-100 days and the ideal temperature for its growth ranges 25 to 30-degree celsius

Soil Requirement for Okra Cultivation;

Okra cultivation can be done in a wide range of soils But the Sandy loam soil rich in organic matter with an optimum pH range of 5.8 to 7 are most suitable for okra cultivation. Okra cultivation gives good yields in heavy soil with a good drainage system.

Okra Seeds and it’s cultivation; 

Okra cultivation can be done around the year. The three main seasons are as follows ;
June- July

Seed rate of Okra ; 

 8.5 kg/ha for the summer crop sown in the month of Feb- March
7 kg/ha for Kharif sown crop.
Note; Storage of seeds Packing of okra seeds in polythene cover (700 gauge) increases the storage life up to 7 months.

Planting Method in okra cultivation ; 

 For the Kharif cultivation of Okra crop, sow the seeds at a spacing of 60 cm ( row to row) and 45 cm (Pant to Plant ). While for the summer crop, soak the seeds in water for 24 hours before the sowing and maintain a spacing of 60 Cms. ( Row to Row) x 30 cm. ( Plant to Plant )


Water management in Okra cultivation  ;

The frequency of irrigation in the Okra crop varies it depends upon the season and the prevailing soil type. Bhendi is grown without irrigation in rainy season in high rainfall area where the distribution of rainfall is uniform throughout the growing season. Light irrigation is essentially required soon after the sowing of seed for ensuring good germination. Irrigate the Summer sowing crop with an interval of 4-5 days. Moisture stress at the time of fruit setting may reduce the t quality of fruit and the yield. Furrow method of irrigation is best suited for the irrigation in okra crop fields.

Nutrient management in Okra cultivation ;

Give a basal dose of FYM or compost @ 12 t/ha. before the sowing, the okra crop and subsequently apply the doses of the N, P2O5, and K2O @ 25, 8 and 25 kg/ha. Another dose of 25 kg N per ha may be applied one month after sowing for better vegetative growth of the Okra crop.
Note: A fertilizer dose of N:P2O5: K2O 75:5:15 kg/ha is recommended for the reclaimed soils.

Weed management for Okra cultivation  ;

Conduct weeding regularly and earth up rows during the rainy season.

Major Pest of Okra  ;

Shoot and fruit borer: Earias vitellaE. insulana (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera)

Cultivation of Okra ; Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench.


The larva bores into the tender terminal shoot in the vegetative stage and flower buds, flowers, and young fruits in the fruit formation stage. The damaged shoots droop, wither and dry up. The infested fruits of the okra crop show a deformed shape and become unfit for consumption human consumption. The Bore-holes plugged with excreta which are not desirable at all 
Jassids: Amrasca bigutula bigutula (Cicadellidae: Hemiptera)
Cultivation of Okra ; Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench.

Both the nymphs and the adults suck the sap from the undersurface of leaves result in the tender leaves turn yellow, leaf margins curl downwards, and reddening sets in. At the time of severe infestation, the leaves turn in to a bronze or brick red colour which gives a typical “hopper burn” appearance and ultimately result in a retarded Crop growth.
Whitefly: Bemisia tabaci (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera)

Cultivation of Okra ; Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench.

The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B (or B. argentifolii) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), results in severe damage to okra plants by feeding on its sap, secreting honeydew, and transmitting virus diseases.

Pest Management for Okra Cultivation  ; 

jassids, fruit and shoot borer, and root-knot nematode are the important pests of okra plant.
For the control of jassids, apply quinalphos, fenthion or fenitrothion as foliar sprays each at 0.05%. and to control the fruit and shoot borers pest, firstly we must remove all the drooping shoots and the damaged fruits. Apply a dose of carbaryl 0.15% at intervals of 15 to 20 days. For aphids, control applies dimethoate 0.05%.
The nematode can be controlled by applying sawdust or paddy husk @ 500 g/plant or neem leaves or Eupatorium leaves @ 250 g/plant in basins one week prior to planting and watering must be done on the daily basis. The effect of such treatment persists up to 75 days after the sowing in the summer season okra  crop
For the control of root-knot nematode apply Bacillus macerans or B. circulans (1.2 x 106 cells per pit) well before sowing is highly recommended
Application of carbofuran granules at the @ 0.5 kg ai / ha or phorate @of 1 kg ai / ha at seeding followed by need-based application of foliar insecticides has been recommended for pest control only at the time of seeding.
it is a piece of advice that insecticides of plant origin may be used, as far as possible.

Disease management for Okra Cultivation  ;
Yellow Vein Mosaic ;

Cultivation of Okra ; Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench.

YVM is the most common occurred disease in okra plants, which result in vein clearing and vein chlorosis of leaves. The yellow network of veins is very conspicuous and the veins and the veinlets became more thickened. Overall result in that fruits become too small and yellowish-green appearance in the colour. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and leafhopper (Amrasca biguttula biguttula) are vectors of this virus. that is why the control of YVM is very important. Use YVM resistant varieties for the okra cultivation

Harvesting of Okra ;

The crop ready to harvest 50 – 60 days after sowing. As the pods of okra plants get matured very quickly, the frequent selection of pods with a maximum size of 2 ” to 3″ inch and still tender is the point that must be considered. A total number of 12-15 harvests can be made at the interval of everyone day

The average yield of Okra Crop;  10-15 tonnes/ha.

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