Cultivation of Gladiolus

Gladiolus, a bulbous ornamental is a flower of glamour and perfection. It undoubtedly the best bulbous flower in India and ranks next only to a tulip in Holland. Its popularity is due to its unparallel beauty and economic value, it is a native of the Mediterranean region Sough Africa. It belongs to the family,
A large number of varieties with attractive colors and petal structure has been the result of interspecific hybridization among
Gladiolus primulinus, G. childissi, G. cardinalis, G. byzantinus, G. psittacinus, G. tritis, G. gandoversis, and G. Oppositie florus. Gldiolus primulinus has, however, contributed the most in evolving modern cultivars.

Gladiolus is ideal for cut flower and garden display. The demand of its cut flowers is increasing day by day due to the excellent keeping quality. Besides home consumption, there are tremendous potentialities of its export to European countries.

Varieties  of Gladiolus ; 

Exotic Varieties of Gladiolus ) 

Arka Rajni ( Purple ), Arka Poonam(light yellow ), Archna ( Prime rose Yellow), Basant Bahar ( Emire Yellow), Gazel ( Persian Yellow), Manhar (primrose yellow), Maisha (triyan rose clour), Mohini (outer white and inner patel are in triyan rose ), Apsara (purple with tight yellow flecks), Peter Pears, Spic & Span , White Friend Ship , white goddess,

Climate Requirement for Cultivation of   Gladiolus  ;

Gladiolus is a flower crop of subtropical and tropical regions with a temperature range between 27 to 30-degree celsius. Gladiolus crop performance is well suited to the long days with 10-12hrs of photoperiods.  

 Propagation of Gladiolus ;

It is commercially multiplied by corms. Cold storage of plant 3 to7 degrees celsius for the three months or GA3 (100 ppm) adopted for breaking the dormancy 
The size of the spike and grade of the flower depends upon the size of corms planted. The corms of 8 to 10 cm size with high crown should be preferred. Multiplication by seeds is done to evolve new varieties. Seed propagation is not followed on a large scale because the varieties do not produce true to the type.

Planting  of Gladiolus ;

1) The planting site should be sunny must have well-drained sandy loam soil with pH 6.2 to 7.5. Planting System must be ridge and furrow.
2) Periodic plantings at fortnightly intervals from September to December in the plains may be done to ensure flowering for a long time which will avoid glut in the market.
3) Flowering periods may also be adjusted by planting early, mid-season, and late varieties. In the hills, it is planted in March April.
4) The planting distance of corms is 15 to 25 cm and between rows 30 to 40 cm. The planting depth of corms is from 8 to 12 cm.
5) Depth also depends upon of corms. At planting time, the soil should have sufficient moisture.
6) Before planting, corms are dipped in 0.2% captan or 0.02% bavistin for 30 minutes then shade dried.

Irrigation Requirement in Gladiolus Cultivation;

A 7 to 8 days interval of irrigation is required for the sandy soils while heavy soil requires less frequent irrigation. 

 Manuring Requirement in Gladiolus Cultivation;

A basal dose of F.Y.M. @ 10 kg/m2 is considered sufficient to meet the requirement without the need for additional fertilizer. However, in poor soils nitrogen should be top-dressed @ 60 gm/mo in two split doses at the stage of 4 and o leaves. Phosphorus and potassium at the rate of 30 g and 20 g/m2 should be applied at the time of soil preparation. A foliar spray of fertilizer with 2 Part of urea and I part of potassium sulphate @ 3 g in one liter may be useful.

Use of growth regulators  in Gladiolus Cultivation; ;

Duration of flowering, spike length and number of florets per spike were found to be quite satisfactory with N.A.A at 50 ppm. Spraying of G.A, @ 100 ppm increased plant height number of leaves and shoot per plant and improved number and size of florets. Better quality and more yields of corm and cormels were also found. Spraying of GA, should be done thrice to get better results. 

Insects and Diseases in Gladiolus; ;

1) Thrips and aphids sometimes attack at the flowering stage, which can be controlled by a spray of 0.2% malathion or Dimethate 30 EC@2 ml/l or Fenitrothion 50 EC@2ml/l
2) Fusarium rot, Botrytis rotand Altemaria are the common diseases of gladiolus. These can be controlled by dipping corms for 2 hrs in 0.1-0.2 percent benlate. Also spraying of 0.2% bavistin at an interval of 10 to 15 days is effective in controlling these diseases.

Lifting of the Corms and Storage  in Gladiolus Cultivation;

After flowering, watering should be stopped. Corms are lifted within 45 days of covering as by this time corm and cormels are matured. The proper time for lifting is when leaves start changing the colour and about 25% cormels become matures. After listing, corms and cormels are cleaned and old shrivelled ones removed. This is the time when corms are checked for possible diseases. They are now kept in -cloth bags in an airy and ventilated room under shade for curing for about 20 to 30 days. When the curing is over, the surface of corms become waxy and the wounds suberized. After curing, corms are dipped for 30 minutes in 0.2% Captan and then dried again for about a week under shade. Now corms and then cormels should be placed in wooden trays or fine gunny bags wounds suberized. with proper aeration and then kept in cold storage having 4.5 to 10° celsius temperature. A small quantity of corms may be kept in perforated paper bags and can be stored in refrigerators.

The yield of Gladiolus ;

2 to 2.5 Lakh Stalks per hectare per Crop.

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