Cultivation of Mint

Cultivation of Mint

Cultivation of Mint (PODINA)

Mint or Mentha is a perennial herb belonging to Genus mentha family Lamiaceae; Labiatae Which provide us essential oil and driven aroma compounds on its distillation Mint is an important leafy vegetable. Its leaves are used for flavouring soups, sauces, beverages and in chutneys. Ils commercial extract is sold as *Peppermint”, which is used in many industrial and pharmaceutical preparation.

The four main cultivated species in India are ;

  1. Japanese Mint / Menthol (M. arvensis)

  2. Pippermint (M. Piperita

  3. Spearmint (M. spicata ) 

  4. Bergamot mint ( M. citrata)

Health Benefits of Mint / Podina 

Cultivation of Mint


Mint herbs is a synonymous of the freshness Despite its uses as a seasoning and dressing herb in various recipes this herb also known us for numerous health benefits which are as floors ;

  1. Relives in indigestions due to the presence of various antioxidants and Phytonutrients  Menthol present in mint help the enzymes necessary for digestion and reflexes the muscle of the stomach 

  2. It cures pains and aches and gives a calm feeling to the entire body. 

  3. It has potent anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties

  4. It helps in curing the oral infarction

  5. It helps in preventing several allergies and asthma due to the presence of rosmarinic acid which acts as a powerful antioxidant.

  6. Mint boosts the immunity because its leaves are packed with several nutrients like Calcium, Phosphorus, Vitamin C,D, and E and a small amount of vitamin B complex.

  7. Mint helps in beating the stress and depressions Because it releases a small amount of serotonin in the brain 

Chemical Composition of Mint and Its Uses 


Japanese mint (M.arvensis)

It is a primary source of menthol. The fresh leaves contain .4-6.0% oil. The main constituents of the oil are menthol (65-75%), menthone (7-10%) and menthyl acetate (12-15%) and terpenes (pipene, limonene and comphene). 

Peppermint (M.piperita)

The fresh herb contains essential oils ranging from 0.4 to 0.6%. The constituents of peppermint oil are almost similar to Japanese mint oil. However, the menthol content is lower in peppermint oil and varies between 35-50%. The other constituents are menthyl acetate (14-15%), menthone (925%) menthofuran and terpenes like pinene and limonene

Bergamot mint (M.citrate)

Linalool and linalyl acetate are the main constituents of Bergamot mint oil. The oil is used directly in perfumes. Cosmetic preparations like scents, soaps, after-shave lotions and colognes also contain this oil.

Spearmint (M.spicata) 

The principal constituent of spearmint oil is carvone (57.71%) and the other minor constituents are phellandrene, limonene,L-pinene and cinelole. The oil is used mostly as a flavouring in toothpastes and as food flavouring in pickles and spices, chewing gum and confectionery, soaps and sauces

 Soil & its Preparation for Mint Cultivation

Mint can grow on a wide range of soil. But sandy loam soils rich in organic content having good drainage facility are best suited for it. The pH level 6 to 6.75 is best for its cultivation   The land should be thoroughly ploughed and harrowed. Mauring should be done by adding 25 tonnes of FYM per hectare

Varieties of Mint ;

S. No.




MAS – 1

1   It is a dwarf variety 30-45 cm. in height and early maturing variety.

2   Less prone to insects due to short height.

3   Menthol content-70-80%.

4   Yield: About 200 q/ha. of herbage & 125-150 kg. of oil /ha.




1   Early maturing variety.

2   It is 50-60 cm. in height.

3   Less prone to diseases viz. leaf spot & rust diseases.

4   Menthol content-80-85%.

5   Yield: About 250 q/ha. of herbage & 120-150 kg. of oil /ha.

6   It is especially well adapted to sandy loam soils and drier climate than that of the tarai region.



(selection from Chinese cultivar)

1   The recovery of oil from the herb is 0.4 -0.5 %.

2   Menthol content: 65-70%.

3  This variety is highly suitable for obtaining second cut through ratooning.

4   It is particularly grown in tarai region of U.P. & Uttaranchal.

5   The herbage yield is 300q/ha while the essential oil yield amounts to about 180 kg/ha.

6 Highly sensitive to the fungal diseases and pests prevailing in the tarai area.



(selection from Russian germplasm)

1    This is an erect type variety, which is less affected by rains.

2   It produces 236.5 q/ha of herbage and 125.2 kg/ha of oil with 70% menthol.

3   Oil is preferred in flavouring food items.



1   It is sturdy, light red in colour.

2   Menthol content-78-80%.

3   Yield is less compared to other varieties. It is less adopted by farmers.



1.Resistant to rust, blight, mildew and leaf spot diseases.

2.Crop is good; size of leaves is larger than other varieties.

2.Menthol content-78-80%.

3. The yield of herbage is 400q/ha and essential oil is 200-250 kg/ ha.



1.Matures early in 90 days.

2.Resistant to rust, blight, mildew and leaf spot diseases.

3.Essential oil content 75-80 % menthol.

4.Yield: 200-250 kg. of oil /ha.



1   Developed through tissue culture from cv. Himalaya.

2   Yield: 225-250 kg. of oil/ha. having menthol content more than 80%.



1   New variety developed through tissue culture.

2   Matures within 90-100 days.

3   The crop remains free from pests and diseases (particularly rust and leaf blight).

4   The variety is most suitable for transplanting after wheat in semi-arid –sub- tropical condition of UP and Punjab.

5   It can withstand waterlogging for few days.

6   Yield: 300-330 q. /ha. having oil yield upto 175-200 kg./ha.

It is propagated by seed or by creeping stolons / suckers or by means of cuttings of the runner. The root sucker from the previous crop can be used for planting The best time for planting this crop is October-November. But the crop can be planted throughout the year except rainy season. About 400 gm seeds or 100 kg cuttings are required for planting an acre. 


7 – 10 cms long stolons/suckers are being planted in a shallow furrows about 6 to 8 cms deep maintaining the Row to Row distance 45 – 60 cms 


About 20 Cartloads of F.Y.M. 30kg single superphosphate and 20 kg of Muriate of Potash per acre is beneficial for this crop. 


Water requirement in the mint crop is very high.It requires 10 to 12  Irrigation before the arrival of monsoon at the interval of 8 to 10 days and 3 to 4 irrigation after the departure of monsoon some time another 2 to 3 irrigation requires during the winter. To obtain the luxurious growth of the plant the sufficient balance between the water and fertilizers is very important.

Intercultural and weed control in Mint

The mint crop requires intensive weeding it is the most expensive operation of this crop Hence,  the first 4 to 12 weeks are very crucial for the weed control an uninterrupted weed growth in the mint field may cause a substantial loss in the yield up to 60% Mint requires regular hoeing after the planting and one hand weeding after the first harvest. Both post and pre weedicides are available to check the weed growth But the chemical is not able to control monocot weeds after the rainy season hence the mechanical and chemical both method should be applied The recommended chemical control is an application of oxyfluorfen @ 0.5 a.i. kg per hectare in the combination of with organic mulch or apply pendimethalin @ 1 per hactare. 

Crop Rotation 

Crop rotation not only helps in controlling the weeds but it also gives better returns as far as the value of land is a concern. The  popular crop rotation in the different parts of the country are —

  1.  Mint- Maize- Potato

  2.  Rice – Mint – Vegetable

  3. Mint – peas – Vegetables

  4. Mint – Maize – Vegetables


The crop is ready to first harvest after 120 days of the planting When the lower leaves start turning yellow delay in harvesting may cause yield loss due to the fall of leaves . The harvesting of mint should be done in a bright sunny day it should be harvest 2 cms above the ground with the help of Sickle and the subsequent harvesting can be done after the 80 – 90 days of intervals.


A good crop of the mint can give  as high as 40 – 45 tonnes of fresh leaves The average yield of all the three cutting is 22 – 25 tonnes hectare A fresh leaves contain oil up 0.4%

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