Cultivation of Pea

Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important winter vegetable crop  India. is the second-largest producer of pea of the world and has a 21% share of Global pea production The crop is generally cultivated for its green pods. It is highly nutritive and is rich in protein. It is used as a vegetable or in soup, canned, frozen, or dehydrated. It is cooked as a vegetable along or with potatoes. Split grains of Pea is widely used for dal. Pea straw is a nutritious fodder.

Pea is a native of Europe and Northern Asia. Ethiopia is probably the main center of origin of garden pea 

Nutritive Value Value of Pea; The nutritive value of Pea in 100 gm edible portion is given below ;
Energy –             81Kcal                 Magnisium – 33 mg
Protein –             22.5%                  Calcium –      64 mg
Fat –                   1.8%                     Iron –            4.8 mg
Carbohydrate –   62.1%                  Moisture –     11% 
Types of  Pea; Pea can be classified into four types of classes These are as follows ;
1) Garden Pea (Pisum Sativum Var. Hortense ); Garden pea mostly posses white flowers with round/wrinkled /dimpled seeds shapes. The color of the seeds may be yellow or green. It does not possess edible pods due to the parchment layer on the inner surface of pods and fiber along the suture lines. Garden pea seeds usually harvested young succulent stage and seeds can be eaten after shelling.
2) Field Pea ( Pisum Sativum Var. arvense ); It often has purple lavender / other color flowers the seeds of the field are  usually round shape with yellow/Green cotyledons The seeds of field pea may have clear or pigmented seed coat
3) Snow pea ( Pisum sativum var. saccharatum ); These are edible-podded a subspecies of Pisum sativum having flat pods and can be eaten before the pod swelling and string development.
4) Sugar Snap pea ( Pisum sativum Var. Macrocarpon); It is the progeny of a cross between the snow pea and unusual tightly thick-walled pea The result is snap like green beans and the pods will have a thick wall and with sweet and edible characteristics.(Except for the string)
Pea is a cool-season crop and performs best at 10°C to 18°C. The Towers and young pods are badly affected by frost. The germination of seeds takes place at 3.3°C to 23.8°C soil temperature. As the temperature increases during the growing season, the yield decline sharply. The optimum mean monthly temperature for pea is 12.8°C to 18°C. The planting under high-temperature conditions will lead to
wilt and stem fly complex which further cause a loss in yield. Thus for pea cultivation slow transition of cool to the warm condition is favorable.   
Soil and its preparation
Garden peas can be grown on a variety of soils from light loam to clay. though the best results are obtained from well-drained, loose, friable loamy soils. The best pH range for peas is between 5.5 and 6.5
The land should be prepared thoroughly. This can be achieved by ploughing the field with desi plough, followed by one or two harrowing to remove the weeds and to make the soil better 
Improved Varieties of Pea ;
Early Varieties 




 it is a dwarf, greenish smooth seeded variety, Pods are produced singly; flowering in 30-35 days after sowing and blossom appear in 6-7 node., Pods are approx 8 cm long, curved, dark green, narrow and appear round when fully developed, seven seeded and giving high shelling percentage (45%).

Early Superb

It has yellowish green foliage. It flowers in about 45 days and the first blossom appears at 8-10th node. Pods are borne singly; these are dark green, curved with 6-7 smooth seeds. This variety gives high shelling percentage (40%).


its plant is dwarf but the growth is vigorous and may grow up to 45 cm. Flowers are white and are borne in double on few lower nodes and single afterward. It flowers in 35-40 days from the sixth node onwards. Pods are dark green, 8.5 cm long, incurved towards the sutures and pointed distal end with 8-10 well filled, wrinkled seeds. It gives high shelling percentage (40%). It is suitable for both the fresh market and dehydration. It takes 50-55 days for first picking. Green pod yield 4-5 t/ha. This variety is highly susceptible to powdery mildew.


 An introduced variety from England. Pods are light green and appears singly with 5-6 small, bluish-green seeds.

Jawahar Matar 3 (JM 3, Early December)

This variety was developed at Jabalpur through hybridization of T19 x Early Badger followed by selections. Plant height 70-75 cm with bushy growth habit; flower colour white, pods light green, roundish-oval in shape with 4-5 wrinkled seeds. It gives high shelling percentage (45%). This variety suffers severely from powdery mildew. First picking starts at 50-55 days after sowing. Average yield 4 t/ha.

Jawahar Matar 4 (JM 4)

This variety was developed at Jabalpur through advanced generation selections from the cross T19 x Little Marvel. Plant height 65 cm, foliage and stem green. First picking can be taken after 70 days. Pods are green, medium in size (7 cm) with 6-7 green, wrinkled and sweet seeds. It is highly susceptible to powdery mildew. Average pod yield 7 t/ha with 40% shelling.

Pant Matar 2 


It was developed through pedigree selection from the cross Early Badger × IP3 (Pant Uphar). Plant height 50-55 cm; fruit setting starts from 6th node. Pods are green, relatively small in size with 6 sweet and wrinkled seeds. First picking starts 55 days after sowing. It is also highly susceptible to powdery mildew. Average pod yield 7-8 t/ha.

 Mid Season Varieties of Pea ;




This medium tall and double podded variety has been developed by Department of Agriculture, U.P. The first blossom appears at 12-14th node after 60 days. Pods are yellowish green, slightly curved, 8.5 cm long with 6-7 wrinkled seeds with 45% shelling percentage.

NP 29

This high yielding and wrinkled seeded plate variety were developed at IARI through selection. Plants are medium-tall with green foliage. First blossom appears at 14-16th node after 80 days from sowing. Pods are borne in double, green, straight, 7.5 cm long with 6-7 seeds. Shelling percentage 50. It is suitable for dehydration purpose.

Jawahar Matar 1 (JM1 or GC 141)

This variety was developed at Jabalpur through advanced generation selections from the cross of T19 × Greater Progress. Plant height 65-70 cm, bushy, foliage green, flower white with two flowers per axil. Pods are straight and big (8.8 cm) with 8-9 big, sweet and wrinkled seeds. It is susceptible to powdery mildew disease. Average pod yield 12 t/ha with 52% shelling.

Jawsahar Matar 2 (JM 2)

The variety was developed at Jabalpur through advanced generation selection from the cross of two exotic lines Greater Progress × Russian-2. Pods are dark green, big, curved with 8-10 sweet seeds. Seeds are wrinkled, green and bigger in size. It is susceptible to powdery mildew.

Pant Uphar (IP-3)

This variety was developed at Pantnagar through selection. Pant height 70-75 cm with relatively thin leaflets of light green in colour; flower white and two buds are borne per axil; pods are round and 7-8 cm in length with yellowish and wrinkled seeds. First picking starts 75 to 80 days after sowing. Susceptible to powdery mildew disease, but tolerant against pea stem fly. Average pod yield 10 t/ha with 52% shelling.

Punjab 88 (P-88

This variety was developed at Ludhiana through selections from the hybrid progeny of the cross Pusa02 × Morrasis-55. Plants are dwarf, vigorous, erect with dark green foliage; one or two flowers per axil. Flowering after 75 days and first picking after 100 days of sowing. Pods are dark green, long (8-10 cm) and slightly curved at centre with 7-8 green, wrinkled and less sweet seeds. Highly susceptible to powdery mildew disease. Average yield 15 t/ha with 47% of shelling.

Azad P-2

A powdery mildew resistant variety developed at Kalyanpur through advanced generation selection from the cross Bonneville × 6587. Plants are tall (130-150 cm0, erect with light green foliage and white flowers. Pods are medium in size, light green, straight, smooth, firm borne in cluster of two with 6-7 wrinkled and brownish seeds. Crop duration 90-95 days. Average yield 12t/ha.

Jawahar Pea 83 (JP 83)

This powdery mildew resistant variety was developed at Jabalpur through advanced generation selection the double cross (JMI × JP 829) × (46 c × JP 501). Plants are dwarf (50 cm), pods are big and curved with 8 big, green and sweet seeds. Average pod yield 12-13 t/ha.

Sowing of Seeds
(a) Sowing time. The pea is generally sown in India in Rabi season from the beginning of October to the middle of November in the plains and from the middle of March to the end of May in the hills  Sowing of seed during the first week of November is proper time to get a higher yield 

(b) Seed rate. The optimum seed rate is 25 to 30 kg for field pea per acre. The seed requirement of early variety is 50 kg and that the main season variety is 40 kg per acre.

(c) Method of sowing. The pea is generally sown by broad casting. But it may also be sown by dibbling or behind the plough. The seeds are soaked in water overnight before sowing for better germination. Seeds treated with rhizobium culture give higher yield.  soaking of seeds in G.A. 10 ppm for 12 hours gave the highest germination & yield.

Generally, Pea is sown in rows at 30 to 60 cms distance and 5 to cms within the rows. Dwarf varieties are sown 30 to 45 cms apart, 2.5 cm deep in light soil, and 2.5 to 4 cm in heavy soil in-furrow at 5 lol apart within the rows in flatbeds, according to the height, variety grow fertility of the soil.
Being a legume crop, pea needs a small amount of nitrogen. A small dose of nitrogenous fertilizers is valuable for stimulating the early growth of legume. A fertilizer mixture of 20 kg of Nitrogen, 28 kg of Phosphorus, and 20 kg of Potassium per acre has a good effect in increasing the yield and nitrogen fixation ability of the legumes. 
Intercultural Operations
(a) Trailing and staking. This is an important operation to be done when vines were about two months old and are at the spreading stage. Generally, the plants should be supported on bamboo sticks and tied. Delay in this operation will reduce the yield considerably
(b) Weed control. It is very difficult to control the weeds of the Pea field by the mechanical method as the crops are sown in rows in closed spacing. The use of herbicides has been proved very much effective. Atrazine, Propazine, and Simazine at 0.54 kg per acre gave good broadleaf weed control and late control of wild oats damage the Peas. Prometryne @ 400 gm per acre was most effective in improving vegetative growth and yield of Pods.
Water requirements of pulse crops are higher than cereals  The water requirement of pea depends largely on the Agroclimate condition of the locality. The crop may be irrigated at 7 to 10 days interval. Where rainfall is low, peas irrigated at both pre-bloom and bloom stages of growth benefited the crop. Irrigation is very necessary at the flowering and grain development stage. 
Disease and Pest of Peas ;
Diseases of Pea;





The symptoms may be seen in seedling stage. The symptoms are premature yellowing and withering of young leaves during seedling stage  and advance stage. Disease caused maximum loss if crop is early sown.

Seed Treatment with Thirum (2gm.) +Carbendazim (1gm.) /kg of  seed; ii) Adopt crop rotation; iii) Avoid early sowing in badly infested areas.

Powdery Mildew

The symptoms first appears on the leaves then on other green parts of the plant. They are characterized by patchy growth on both the surfaces of the leaf and also on the tendrils, pods and stem. In case of severe infestation the plant dies prematurely.

i) Adopt resistant var. like Pant Pea-5, Malviya-15, JP-885, HUP-2 etc.; ii) Spraying with Karathane @ 1 ml/litre or wettable sulphur @ 3 gm/litre or Dinocap @ 1 ml/litre of water and repeat after 10-15 days, if necessary; iii) Avoid late planting; iv) After harvest collect the plants left in the field and burn them.


It is caused by fungus. The stem of the plant becomes malformed and the affected plant dies out. All the green parts of plant are affected. Yellow spots having aecia in round or elongated clusters. Then the uredopustules develop which are powdery and light brown in appearance.

i) After harvest, the affected plants trash should be burnt; ii) Spray the crop with Mancozeb 75 WP @ 2 g / liter of water.

Insect- Pest of Pea




Pea Stem fly

The maggot of the insect damages the internal tissue, consequently the entire plant dies. The damage is more acute when crop is sown early

i) Mix 30 kg/ ha Carbofuran (Furadon) 3 % granules or 10 kg /ha Phorate (Thimet) 10 % granules in the soils before sowing the crop; ii) Avoid early planting.

Leaf Miner

Larvae of the insect makes tunnel in the leaf causing severe damage. The damage is more during the month of Mar

i) 1 liter of Oxydemeton methyl (Metasystox) 25 EC in 1000 liter of water per hectare when the attack begins and repeat at 15 days intervals.

Pea Aphids

They suck the sap of the cells, owing to which the leaves turn pale and yellow. In case of severe infestation the plant growth is checked. Ultimately plant growth get stunted.

i) Spray 1.25 liter of Dimethoate 30 EC or oxydemeton methy (Metasystox) 25 EC in 1000 liter of water per hectare. Reperat the spray after 10-12 days.

Spiny Pod Borer

It is a polyphagous insect. Caterpillar makes hole in pods feed upon developing seed. Late varieties are prone to more damage than earlier one.

i) Picking of green pods should be done 15 days after spraying; ii) Spray of 1.25 liter of cypermethrin in 1000 liter of water per hectare is safe and effective.

Peas are harvested for table use when the Pods are well filled and the young tender Peas changing in color from dark to light green. Peas may be picked in 45 to 60 days, 75 days and 100 days according to early, mid season and late. Varieties respectively, 3 to 4 pickings are done within the interval of 7 to 10 days. Fresh unshelled peas may be kept two weeks at 0°C and 90-95 percent relative humidity  
The yield of pea per acre varies according to the variety
1200-1600 kg Early Variety
Mid-season and late variety : 2400-2800 kg


2 thoughts on “Cultivation of Pea

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Verified by MonsterInsights