Cultivation of Chrysanthemum in India; A Complete Information Guide

Cultivation of Chrysanthemum in India ; A Complete Information Guide
Cultivation of Chrysanthemum in India; A Complete Information Guide
Chrysanthemum, commonly known as Guldaudi or Autumn Queen belongs to the family Compositae. It is believed to be originated in China and considered one of the most ancient cultivated ornamental crops of the world. Later on, it became very popular in Japan due to remarkable cultural and varietal changes and is regarded as a symbol of royalty. 
 In India, chrysanthemum has been recognized as one of the five most important commercials, ornamental crops  It is grown for loose flowers for garlands, Veni, cut flower and for purposes of the exhibition as well as garden decoration.
 It is being extensively grown in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, and M.P. in an area of more than 4000 hectares, and about 24,000 tones of flowers are sold every year.
Some Common Names of chrysanthemum;
In different states of India, it is grown with different names, Guldaudi in the Hindi belt, Chandramalika, in the eastern state, Samanti in the southern states, and Shevanti in the western states. 

Classification of Chrysanthemum ;

According to the habit of growth

Cultivation of Chrysanthemum in India ; A Complete Information Guide

1 Annual Chrysomhemum; It  has three species namely- Chrysanthemum carinatum (In colored chrysanthemum), C.Coronarium Crown daisy or garland Chrysanthanum and C. segetum corn marigold), Plant is tall with a single flower
2. Perennial  It also consists of three species namely C. maximum, C.frutescence and C morifolium  It produces a most attractive single flower,semi-double and double flowers of different kind and form,
According to the shape of Blooms

Cultivation of Chrysanthemum in India ; A Complete Information Guide

Based upon the size of flowers, chrysanthemum varieties may ta classified into two groups ie, large-flowered and small-flowered. Large-flowered is further divided into-Incurved (globular shape), Reflexes (with drooping florets), Intermediate (Outer ray florets curve outward and downward while inner florets are incurved), Irregular (ray florets twisted and tossed irregularly). Quilled (ray florets are tubular),

Cultivation of Chrysanthemum in India ; A Complete Information Guide

Spon (end of ray florets like a spatula), Ballor Rayonnate (like a perfect ball), Anemone single petals with a tubular central disc), Likewise, small-flowered groups are divided into – Anemone, Button Korean (single and double) Decorative, Pompon, Quilled, Semi-quilled and stellate types

Soil and Climatic Requirements for Chrysanthemum Cultivation

Well-drained sandy loamy soils with a high organic content are the best for chrysanthemum cultivation. The ideal pH range for its cultivation should be between 6-7.
 Chrysanthemum is a short-day plant hence planting should be done in a way so that flowering coincides with the short day Conditions.  It can be cultivated under tropical and subtropical conditions the ideal temperature of its vegetative growth is between 20 to 28-degree Celsius and for the bud formation the temperature range should be between 10 to 20-degree celsius

Varieties of Chrysanthemum;

A. Large-flowered. Kasturba Gandhi (White), Chandrama (Yellow), Mahatma Gandhi (Manve), Meera (Manure), Tamra & Arun (Red).
B. Small-flowered, Sharad Mukta, Sharad Tanka, Sharad Mala (White), Sharad Bahar, Sharad Prabha (Mauve), Kao (Red).arad Prabha (Mauve), Rakhee, Arun Singar, Suhag Singer

 Propagation of Chrysanthemum
It is multiplied both by vegetative and sexual methods. The latter method is practiced by the breeder for the evolution of new varieties, Seed propagation is also done in the case of annual Chrysanthemum. The vegetative method is preferred for neat and sturdy plants.
Vegetative propagation includes root suckers, cuttings, and micropropagation. Profuse suckering takes place about a month after flowering is over. Root suckers are separated in Feb-March when they are 10-15 cm high and planted in pots or beds. Cuttings is taken from stock plants in the months of June. Cuttings of 4-6 cm long with a diameter of 3 10 5 mm are treated with a fungicidal solution to avoid rotting. Seradix. B-1 or 2.200 ppm TBA may be used for better rooting. It takes about a month to produce roots Specialised propagators in many countries resort to mass production of virus-free cuttings by tissue culture for commercial purpose

Planting of Chrysanthemum

Suckers may be planted on ridges at the spacing of 30 cm x 30 cm in beds of different shapes and sizes for higher flower yield.( The time of planting depends on the region and ranges from March to August. For growing in pots, three potting should be done. First potting is done Feb-March in 10 cm pots, consisting of one part each of sand, soil, and leaf mould. Second pasting is done in the last week of April in 15 cm pots, consisting of one part soil, one part sand and two parts leaf mould, one tablespoonful superphosphate, and 1/4 part of wood ashes. Third and final potting is done in August September in 30cm. pots, consisting of one part sand, one part soil, two-part soil, two-part leaf mould, two-part cow dung manure, two tablespoonful superphosphate, and 1/4th, part of each of charcoal and wood-ashes.

Manuring in Chrysanthemum

A dose of 40 g nitrogen, 20 g phosphorus, and 20 g potash per sq. meter area has been found for better yield. Half dose of nitrogen and full of P,0, and K, should be applied at the fine of planting and the remaining half dose of nitrogen after one month of planting.

To fulfill the nutritional requirement  the application of ZnSo4 0.25% and MgSo4 05% is recommended as a foliar spray.
 Apply 0.5 kg each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria per acre at the time of planting as a soil application and It should  be mixed with 100kg of FYM and applied
Growth Regulators; 
The application of GA3 @ 50 PPM at the interval of 30 – 45-60 days of planting is recommended.

Growth Regulation in Chrysanthemum

A. Physical Methods
1. Disbudding. It is a process of removal of an extra number of flower buds. It is practiced to reduce the number of flowers and to obtain better quality blooms. No disbudding is done in the case of Korean, pompon, and singles.
2. Pinching. Removal of the terminal portion is called pinching. Its objective is to encourage side branches, reduces the height, and delays flowering.
3. Dis-shooting. It is a process of removal of unwanted branches. Ils objective is to reduce the number of branches and number of flowers as well as better quality blooms.
4. Staking. Providing support to the plant or branches is known as staking. It allows the plant to grow in the proper direction.
B. Chemical Methods
Reducing the growth through chemicals like B-Nine, Phosphon and CCC is feasible when sprayed or soil drenched. Pinching by chemicals like Emgard 2077 and offshoot ‘O’ is reported to be successful.
C. Cultural Methods
Plant height may be increased by early planting maintaining soil moisture and planting in the bigger size of pots. Manipulation of day-length and temperature at various stages of plant growth is being done to get flowering at the desired period.

Pests and Diseases of Chrysanthemum

Aphids, Thrips, and leaf-eating caterpillars can be controlled by spraying  Acetamiprid @ 0.3 g/l or Indoxacarb @ 1 ml/l. 

For Leaf Folder control spray 0.02% Cypermethrin or 0.02% Decamethrin or 0.05% Quinolophos at fortnightly interval.
Powdery mildew can be controlled by Karathane 0.2% spray. Black leaf spot disease appears on leaves which turn yellow and die. Spraying of Dithane M-45 @ 0.2% is effective

Harvesting of Chrysanthemum;

The crop duration of the chrysanthemum crop is about 6-8 months for the crop while for the ratoon crop it takes around 4 months duration.

Harvesting of the flowers starts from 3rd month onwards at 4 days intervals. Harvesting is done at 3/4 to the full open stage for nearby markets and 1/2 open stage for distant markets.

13-15 picking can be done in the chrysanthemum field.
An average yield of 5 t/acre from plant crop and 2.5 t/acre from ratoon crop can be obtained.
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