Classification of Chrysanthemum ;
According to the habit of growth
1 Annual Chrysomhemum; It has three species namely- Chrysanthemum carinatum (In colored chrysanthemum), C.Coronarium Crown daisy or garland Chrysanthanum and C. segetum corn marigold), Plant is tall with a single flower
2. Perennial It also consists of three species namely C. maximum, C.frutescence and C morifolium It produces a most attractive single flower,semi-double and double flowers of different kind and form,
According to the shape of Blooms
Based upon the size of flowers, chrysanthemum varieties may ta classified into two groups ie, large-flowered and small-flowered. Large-flowered is further divided into-Incurved (globular shape), Reflexes (with drooping florets), Intermediate (Outer ray florets curve outward and downward while inner florets are incurved), Irregular (ray florets twisted and tossed irregularly). Quilled (ray florets are tubular),
Spon (end of ray florets like a spatula), Ballor Rayonnate (like a perfect ball), Anemone single petals with a tubular central disc), Likewise, small-flowered groups are divided into – Anemone, Button Korean (single and double) Decorative, Pompon, Quilled, Semi-quilled and stellate types
Soil and Climatic Requirements for Chrysanthemum Cultivation
Varieties of Chrysanthemum;
A. Large-flowered. Kasturba Gandhi (White), Chandrama (Yellow), Mahatma Gandhi (Manve), Meera (Manure), Tamra & Arun (Red).
B. Small-flowered, Sharad Mukta, Sharad Tanka, Sharad Mala (White), Sharad Bahar, Sharad Prabha (Mauve), Kao (Red).arad Prabha (Mauve), Rakhee, Arun Singar, Suhag Singer
It is multiplied both by vegetative and sexual methods. The latter method is practiced by the breeder for the evolution of new varieties, Seed propagation is also done in the case of annual Chrysanthemum. The vegetative method is preferred for neat and sturdy plants.
Planting of Chrysanthemum
Suckers may be planted on ridges at the spacing of 30 cm x 30 cm in beds of different shapes and sizes for higher flower yield.( The time of planting depends on the region and ranges from March to August. For growing in pots, three potting should be done. First potting is done Feb-March in 10 cm pots, consisting of one part each of sand, soil, and leaf mould. Second pasting is done in the last week of April in 15 cm pots, consisting of one part soil, one part sand and two parts leaf mould, one tablespoonful superphosphate, and 1/4 part of wood ashes. Third and final potting is done in August September in 30cm. pots, consisting of one part sand, one part soil, two-part soil, two-part leaf mould, two-part cow dung manure, two tablespoonful superphosphate, and 1/4th, part of each of charcoal and wood-ashes.
Manuring in Chrysanthemum
A dose of 40 g nitrogen, 20 g phosphorus, and 20 g potash per sq. meter area has been found for better yield. Half dose of nitrogen and full of P,0, and K, should be applied at the fine of planting and the remaining half dose of nitrogen after one month of planting.
Growth Regulation in Chrysanthemum
A. Physical Methods
1. Disbudding. It is a process of removal of an extra number of flower buds. It is practiced to reduce the number of flowers and to obtain better quality blooms. No disbudding is done in the case of Korean, pompon, and singles.
2. Pinching. Removal of the terminal portion is called pinching. Its objective is to encourage side branches, reduces the height, and delays flowering.
3. Dis-shooting. It is a process of removal of unwanted branches. Ils objective is to reduce the number of branches and number of flowers as well as better quality blooms.
4. Staking. Providing support to the plant or branches is known as staking. It allows the plant to grow in the proper direction.
B. Chemical Methods
Reducing the growth through chemicals like B-Nine, Phosphon and CCC is feasible when sprayed or soil drenched. Pinching by chemicals like Emgard 2077 and offshoot ‘O’ is reported to be successful.
C. Cultural Methods
Plant height may be increased by early planting maintaining soil moisture and planting in the bigger size of pots. Manipulation of day-length and temperature at various stages of plant growth is being done to get flowering at the desired period.
Pests and Diseases of Chrysanthemum
Aphids, Thrips, and leaf-eating caterpillars can be controlled by spraying Acetamiprid @ 0.3 g/l or Indoxacarb @ 1 ml/l.
Harvesting of Chrysanthemum;
Harvesting of the flowers starts from 3rd month onwards at 4 days intervals. Harvesting is done at 3/4 to the full open stage for nearby markets and 1/2 open stage for distant markets.
An average yield of 5 t/acre from plant crop and 2.5 t/acre from ratoon crop can be obtained.