Cultivation of Green Gram (Moong Bean) in India

Cultivation of Green Gram (Moong Bean) in India
Green gram(Vigna radiate ) belongs to the family Legumes

It is cultivated in states of M.P., Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra Rajasthan, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu, etc. Green Gram crop is grown mostly under the rainfed conditions during Kharif season but during summer it can be grown only when the assured irrigation facilities are available. During summer the crop is grown grains and/or for the dual purpose of taking grains as well as green manuring after picking off the matured pods which adds about 40-50 kg N/ha as residual


Health Benefits of Green Gram (Moong Bean)
Antioxidant effects. Research shows that Green Gram Has several compounds that demonstrate antioxidant activity.
Antifungal and antimicrobial activity. It includes some against the Helicobacter pylori bacteria that causes stomach ulcers.
Anti-inflammatory activity. Test tube studies Show that Green Gram extracts may have the potential to improve symptoms of inflammatory conditions, such as allergies.
Diabetes. Experiments in rats suggest Green Gram extracts may help lower blood glucose levels.
Hypertension. Sprout extracts of Green Gram may help lower blood pressure.
Cancer. Some Compounds present in Green Gram may have antitumor properties.
Nutritional Importance of Green Gram ( Moong Bean );

As per to the USDA data, 100 gms of boiled mung beans contain:  Green Gram contains 7.02 gms of protein, 19.15 g carbohydrate, 2 g sugar, and 7.60 g dietary fiber. 

Green Gram (Mung beans ) is also a good source of B vitamins that are important for a range of bodily functions and it helps to maintain the brain’s health.
In particular, the Green gram is an excellent source of vitamin B-9, which is also known as folate, that helps a person’s body make DNA. Folate is essential before and during pregnancy, as it helps prevent some birth abnormalities.
As per USDA report that 100 g of Green Gram contains 159 micrograms (mcg) of folate. The recommended daily allowance for folate is 400 mcg for adults and 600 mcg during pregnancy. So, it is very unlikely that a person will meet their folate requirement by eating mung beans alone.

Climate and Soil Requirement for Green Gram Cultivation;

Green gram requires a hot and humid climate and it is best suited to the areas that receive rainfall around 60-70 cms. Green Gram is one of the hardiest pulses and is well adapted to drought conditions  hence it can be grown in areas prone to drought conditions during the Kharif season Green Gram is a sensitive crop for waterlogged and cloudy conditions 
It needs fairly deep well-drained soils belonging to loams of north alluvium, red and black cotton soils of central or southern Indian tracts. Green Gram crops are not suitable to grow under saline and alkaline conditions.

Field Preparation for Green Gram Cultivation ; 

A well-prepared seedbed is required for good seed germination and proper establishment of Green Gram crop.
For a good seedbed plough the field 2-3 times followed by planking to M-96make the seedbed weeds and clods-free. After harvesting the summer/spring Green Gram crop tillage should be done in the harvested crop field after giving an irrigation  

Varieties of Green Gram ;

For Kharif Season ; 
 IPM 2-3 ,T1 ,T44 ,Pusa ,Baisakhi,PS7,PS16,Varsha(H7016)
Jawahar-45, ML-1,ML-5,ML-9,Kopergaon, PAU-911, Pant Moong-4,Pant moong -5,Narendra Moong-1,HAUM-1,
For Rabi Seasons;
1)LGG450, LGG 460, TM96-2 (AP) ,2) IPM 2-3, LGG 460,TARM-1, OBGG 52 (Odisha)
For Summer Season;
HUM 16, PDM – 139, Meha, Pant moong – 5,Virat (IPM 205-7), ADT-3 , Sujata (Hy 12-4) ,Pusa Vishal ,TMB-37,
Sowing Time of Green Gram;
The Kharif crop is sown (either mixed with jawar, bajra, arhar. etc., or pure)  soon after sufficient rains are received whereas the summer crop is sown in March/April after harvesting of rabi crop. Late sown spring/summer crop causes the delay in flowering due to which a significant yield loss may occur.

Method of sowing in Green Gram Cultivation ;  

Line sowing is always superior over broadcasting and therefore, a spacing of 30-45 cm between rows is given in Kharif sowing. While Spring or summer season crop needs relatively closer spacing because of less vigorous plant growth. Sowing can be done by seed drill or by a local plough. 
Seed Rate; A seed rate of 15-20 kg during Kharif and 20-25 kg/ha during rabi is used for pure crop and 2-6 kg/ha for the mixed crop. 
Seed Treatment;
Seed treatment should be done with Thiram (2 gms) + Carbedazim(1 gms ) or Carbendazim + Captan (1gms+ 2 gms) to control the seed & soil born diseases. For controlling the sucking pest seed treatment should be done by Imidachlorprid 70WS @ 7 gms /kg of seed. Along with chemical treatment, it is desirable to teat the seed with Rhizobium and PSB culture@ 5-7 gms/kg of seeds.

Manure and Fertilizers Required in Green Gram Cultivation;

 Mostly Green gram cultivation is done on the basis of basic fertility of soil If available apply the 7-10 tonne of FYM 15 days before the sowing Apply 15 kg of nitrogen and 30 to 40 kg of phosphorous at the time of sowing. Apply the fertilizer 2-3 cms deep below the seed.

Irrigation in Green Gram Cultivation ;
Kharif sown green gram crop does not require irrigation unless there is a long dry spell during the Kharif season. 
In summer/spring-sown crop the irrigation should be given 20-25 days after the sowing and repeat the Irrigation at an interval of 8-10 days 3- 4 times. Flowering and pod filling are the most critical stages of the green gram for irrigation.

Weed Control;

A weed-free situation should be maintained upto first 4-6 weeks after which it smothers them. This could be achieved by providing two weedings or by spray application of pendimethalin@ 0.75 -1 kg a.i./ha in 400 -600 liter of water as pre-emergence. It should be a note down always use a flat nozzle for herbicide spraying.

Pest and Disease in Green Gram Cultivation;

Pest of the Green Gram;




White Fly

The infested plants become very weak showing downward cupping of the leaves giving a sickly look and the plant may die Insect secretes honeydew on leaves results in blackening of leaves, drastically reducing photosynthetic rate and drying of leaves. Whitefly is a vector of the number of viral diseases especially mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV).

1)Seed treated with Dimethoate 30 EC @ 5ml/kg; 2) Foliar spray of Triazophos 40 EC @ 2.0 ml/l or Malathion 50 EC @ 2.0 ml/l at 10-15 days intervals if required; 3) Grow cotton as a trap crop one month earlier between the mungbean rows; 4) Grow maize, sorghum or pearl millet as a barrier crop to minimize the incidence of whiteflies; v) Install Sticky trap; 5) Opt. resistant varieties

Bean Thrips

The thrips nymphs and adults feed on stigma inside the flower, flower sheds before opening and there is elongation of the terminal shoot. Plants attain a bushy growth and the crop looks dark-green in color, bearing few pods with shriveled grains.

1) Seed treatment with Thiomethoxam 70 WS @ 2 ml /kg seed + foliar spray of Thiomethoxam 25 WG 0.2 g/liter of water of is quite effective in controlling bean thrips; 2) Spray neem seed kernel extract (50 g/l) and neem oil 3000 ppm @ 20 ml/l; 3) Opt for resistant varieties 4) The incidence of bean thrips can be minimized by intercropping mungbean with cotton;5) Spray of Triazophos 40 EC @ 2.0 ml/liter, Ethion 50 EC @ 2 ml/liter of water.

Stem Fly

Stem fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli) maggots mine the leaves or bore into the leaf petiole or tender stem resulting in withering, drooping, and death of the plant. The characteristic symptoms of damage include drooping of the first two leaves and yellowing of plants. It can cause 5 – 20% damage in mungbean.

Follow clean cultivation, crop rotation, earthing up, growing trap crop, destroying alternative hosts like Solanum nigrum to minimize the stem fly incidence; 2) Opt for resistant 3) Seed soaking either in imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 5.0 ml/kg seed in 100 ml water for one hour or thiomethoxam 25 WG @ 5.0 g/kg seed in 100 ml water to avoid early incidence of stem fly is recommended; 4) Spray either Imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 0.2ml/l or thiomethoxam 25 WG @ 0.3g/lit at 15 days after sowing

Bihar Hairy Caterpillar

Female moths lay eggs on plants in a field. The young caterpillar eats away all the green matter of the leaves and it can be easily recognized by perforated, dusty white colored leaves in the field. The grown-up caterpillars feed voraciously on leaves, soft stems, and branches. The insect totally denude the crop within a few days resulting in total failure of the crop.

1) Uproot the damaged plants along with the young larvae at the gregarious phase and burry under the soil; 2) Spray of Quinalphos 25 EC @ 2.5 ml/liter or Dichlorvos 10 EC @ 1.0 ml/ liter or Fenvalerate 20 EC @ 1.87 ml/ liter of water or dusting with Fenvalerate 0.4% @ 15 kg/ha.

Diseases of Green Gram 




Yellow Mosaic Disease

These are first visible in the form of yellow, diffused, round spots scattered on the leaf lamina. These spots expand rapidly and the leaves show yellow patches alternating with green colour of the leaves. The newly emerging leaves, after initial symptoms, show these symptoms right from the beginning. The affected leaves later turn completely yellow and get reduced in size.

1)Rogued out disease Plants

2) In order to prevent whitefly (Bemisia spp.) infestation spray with triazophos 40 EC @ 2.0 ml/l or malathion 50 EC @ 2.0 ml/l or oxydemeton methyl 25 EC @ 2.0 ml/l at 10-15 days intervals if required; 3) Grow tolerant/resistant varieties

Leaf Curl

The symptoms are visible first in third leaf after three to four weeks of sowing. These are characterized by the enlargement of leaves followed by their crinkling. Later the leaves become thicker and leathery. The affected plants, however, do not die till the harvest of the crop.

1) Treat the seeds with imidacloprid 70 WS@ 5ml/kg; 2) Foliar spray of insecticide (dimethoate 30 EC @ 1.7ml/ha) on 30 days after sowing; 3) Rogue out the infected plants and Field sanitation; 4) Use resistant varieties like

Cercospora Leaf Spot

 It is the most important fungal disease of moong crop. In the diseased condition, small round spots, violet red in colour may be observed. These spots can be recognised by their grey coloured centre. Such spots are also visible or pods and the affected pods become blackened.

1) Field sanitation, crop rotation, destruction of infected crop debris; 2) Opt for resistant varieties 3) Treat the seeds with thiram or captan @ 2.5g/kg of seed; 4) On appearance of the symptoms spray with carbendazim 50 WP @1.0 g/liter or mancoze 75 WP @ 2.0 g/liter or hexaconazole (contaf 5 % EC) @ 1 ml/ liter of water.Subsequent spray should be done after 10 to 15 days, if required. Spraying with copper oxychloride @ 3 to 4 g /liter water has also been found effective in management of the disease.


The disease is initially characterized by the production of dark brown circular spots. Later the spots increase in size by developing concentric ridges. The areas in between the concentric ridges remain ash-colored. The infection may also spread to pods where dark colored spots are visible on them.

1) Hot water seed treatment at 58oC for 15 minutes is effective in checking the seed-borne infection and an increasing proportion of seed germination; 2) Treat seed  with carbendazim 50 WP @ 2g/kg of seed 3) Spray the crop with carbendazim @ 2g/ liter of water with the first appearance of symptoms on the crop and repeat after 15 days (if Needed).

The crop takes about 75-90 days to complete its life cycle, however the pods ripe and become ready for picking about 60 days after sowing. Two pickings should be taken to avoid shattering losses as the pods start splitting soon after their maturity and finally, the plants are either uprooted or cut by sickles and after drying them on the threshing floor for about 7-10 days the plants are either beaten with sticks, trampled with bullocks’ feet for separating out the grains. 
The grains are taken out by winnowing, cleaned, bagged, and stored. On average, about 5-6 quintals of grains/ha can be obtained but with better management and higher inputs, the yield can be as higher as 12 to 15 quintals.

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