Cultivation of Artichoke ; A complete Information Guide

Cultivation of Artichoke; A complete  Information Guide

Introduction to Artichoke Crop ;

Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is a herbaceous perennial crop that belongs to the family Compositae and it is grown for a flower bud. It is a native of North America, Southern Europe, and Canary Island. In India, it is grown in the form of an exotic vegetable. Artichoke considered the world’s oldest vegetable that is cultivated by the Romans and Greeks believed this vegetable also favorable to God also that is why it is also called “Vegetable of God’s”.

Nutritional Values of Artichoke ;

Artichokes have a low amount of fat with higher fiber contents and It is loaded with several vitamins and minerals like vitamin C, vitamin K, folate, phosphorus, and magnesium. They are also one of the richest sources of antioxidants. The nutritional value of Artichoke per 100 gms are as follows;






211 Kcal


21 mg


034 g


0.99 g


296 mg


2.89 g


73 mg


42 mg


286 mg

Vitamin C

7.4 mg


11.39 g

Vitamin B6

.081 mg


0.34 g

Vitamin B3

1.11 mg

Medicinal Uses of Artichoke ;

Artichoke is most commonly used for indigestion (dyspepsia) and high levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia). It is also used for high blood pressure, hepatitis C, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
In foods, artichoke leaves and extracts are used to flavor beverages. Cynarin and chlorogenic acid, which are chemicals found in artichoke, are sometimes used as sweeteners.
Don’t confuse artichoke with Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus).

Types of Artichokes
 There are two types of artichoke:

(i) Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L)
It is a perennial crop grown for its flower bud and originated from the Mediterranean region of Southern Europe. The above-ground portion dies each year during winter and again emerges in spring.
(ii) Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus)
It is cultivated for its oblong tubers. It is a native of North America. Carbohydrate insulin is stored in the tubers of this crop and hence it is recommended for persons suffering from diabetes. The potential use of Jerusalem artichoke in diabetic foods, in maintaining the freshness of baked food, and in alcohol production.

Important Varieties of Artichokes;

Green Globe; It has long & Slightly pointed buds. Globe artichokes are 8 to 13 cm large and have thick, delicious creamy hearts used for fresh market purposes.
Magnifico; Bracts are rose-red at base and tip. The internal floral structure is similar to the Green has a heavier and thicker heart area.

Imperial Star ; (Open-pollinated, 85 days) is bred for annual production the first year from seed It produces 6-8 mature buds, each 3-4” (8-10 cm) in diameter. Plants are 3-4’ (1-1.2 meters) tall and as wide.

Violetto – elongated variety is also known as purple artichoke Omaha – dense and quite sweet 
Sienna – small choke with wine-red leaves 
Baby Anzo – just a couple of bites but you can eat the whole thing 
Big Heart – a very heavy, dense bud 
Fiesole – small but a delicious, fruity flavor 
Gros vert de Laon – French mid-season variety 
Colorado Star – small plants with a big taste 
The purple of Romagna – Italian heirloom with big round Blooms Emerald – large, round green heads without spines

Climatic Requirement for Artichoke Cultivation ;

Artichoke is a cool-season crop and it is susceptible to frost conditions. it can be successfully grown under the temperature range of 12 to 18 degrees celsius. Temperature above the 22-degree celsius causes bud toughness and a tendency to spread. Artichoke roots can survive under freezing temperatures but the freezing temperatures are injuries for the aerial parts of the artichoke plants.  

Soil & its Preparation for Artichoke Cultivation;

Artichoke can be grown on various types of soil. But it is grown best on deep, fertile, and well-drained soil. A light and well-drained soil are necessary for raising artichokes. The optimum range of pH should be 6 – 7.5 for artichoke cultivation  The soil should be prepared thoroughly by repeated ploughings.

Propagation of Artichoke ;

It is generally propagated vegetatively to get true to the variety. The globe artichoke is propagated by means of suckers and offshoots from the old rootstock and Jerusalem artichoke is propagated by planting whole tuber or tuber pieces of 57 cm in size. 

The highest early yield was obtained by planting in mid. July and the highest total yields by planting in August, Globe artichokes are planted in 2 x 3 m spacing. But the Jerusalem artichokes are planted in 165 x 50 cm spacing.

Manuring in Artichoke Crop;

The recommended fertilizer application rates are 48-56 kg nitrogen, 160-200 kg phosphoric acid, and 40 kg potassium per acre in autumn, with one or two, further split applications of nitrogen in the spring.

Aftercare in Artichoke Crop;

The soil should be frequently cultivated to check the growth of weeds and to keep the soil loose. Chemical herbicides may be used to control the weeds. Trifluralin, Linuron, Metobromuron, Metabenzthiazuron, etc. applied before planting gave good control of broad-leaved and grass weeds. 

Harvesting of Artichoke Crop;

The buds of globe artichoke are harvested before they become loose and fibrous. The mature tubers of Jerusalem artichoke are harvested when they become mature. Harvest season starts from September – October. Sucker or offshoot planted crop is ready to harvest within 6-7 months after the planting. (whereas seed sown crop takes about 8 months). A native plant of artichoke produces  10-12 stems and approximately 45-50 edible buds.

The yield of Artichoke Crop; 

The average yield of the artichoke crop is about 30 to 40 q/acre

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