Pineapple (Ananas) Cultivation; A complete Farming Guide

 Pineapple (Ananas) cultivation ; A complete Farming Guide
Pineapple (Ananas) cultivation; A complete Farming Guide;

Pineapple or Ananas,( Comosus Merr.) is one of the important tropical fruits.  It is mainly grown in Assam, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka, Meghalaya, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Tripura, and Goa. It is a fast-growing fruit and considered very suitable for canning purposes. 
The fruit contains a special enzyme called “Bromelin’ which digests protein. Besides vitamin ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’, it is a good source of minerals like iron, calcium, and phosphorus, Pineapple juice and slices are famous preserves and can be exported to different countries. 
Fresh fruit is used for table purposes and also for making jam. Because the climatic conditions over a large part of our country are favorable, there is immense scope for increasing its area and production.
It is a monocot, perennial herbaceous plant which attains a maximum size of 80-90 cm. Inflorescence emerges from the top portion of the stem. Fruit development in the first crop takes place from the main stem whereas in the second crop (ratoon crop) it is from one or two side branches of the main stem. The fruit is botanically called sorosis
The same stem does not produce the second crop. Self-sterility is found in all the commercial varieties and fruits are parthenocarpic.

Nutritive Value of Pineapple; 

The Nutritive value  of pineapple per 100 gms as per USDA data are as follows; 






86.0 gms

         Riboflavin ( B2)

0.032 mg


0.54 gms

Vitamin C

47.8 mg


0.12 gms


13.12 gms


1.4 gms


50 kcal


1.0 mg


9.85 gms


8 mg


5.5 mg


13 mgs


18 Micro Gms


0.29 mg

Vitamin (B6)

0.112 mg


12 mg

Pantothenic Acids(B5)

0.213 mg


0.927 mg


0.079 mg


012 mg

Niacin (B3)

0.50 mg


Climate and Soil Requirements For Pineapple Cultivation;

High rainfall areas are best for pineapple cultivation. The Optimum range of rainfall for pineapple cultivation is about 1500-1600 mm per year But it may be grown in areas where the rainfall range is between 500mm to 5500mm.

The fruit of pineapple grows well near the coastal areas as well as inland, so long as the temperature ranges from 15 to 32 degrees celsius.
 High temperatures during the nights are harmful to pineapple crops There should be a temperature difference of 4 degrees Celsius between day and night temperatures.
 Low temperature, bright sunshine, and total shade are harmful. It can grow successfully up to 1525m above sea level.

Well-drained soil with a pH value of 4.5 to 5 is very suitable for its cultivation.

Selection of Pineapple  varieties;

Pineapple (Ananas) cultivation ; A complete Farming Guide
Pineapple Field

Kew Giant or kew is one of the most important cultivars. It is also known as smooth cayenne because of the absence of thorns on the leaf margins. The average weight of the fruit is 2 to 3 kg and is most suitable for canning.
Queen is the second important cultivar grown in our country. Plants are smaller and leaves possess thorns on margins. The average weight of fruit is 1 to 2 kg. Its keeping quality is better than kew Giant. It is considered suitable for table fruit and is an early variety.
Red Spanish. Fruits are smaller than Kew Giant and bigger than Queen. Fruits contain more acidity and less sweetness. The average weight of fruits is 1.5 to 2.5 kg. It is generally not used for canning. Mid-season variety.

Red and yellow Mauritius varieties come under this group.

Propagation of Pineapple;

Pineapple is propagated vegetatively, Suckers, slips, crown, and disc are propagating materials used for its multiplication. Shoots produced from the axil of leaves are called suckers. Shoot emerging from the fruit stock are known as slips. A bunch of leaves on top of fruits is called the crown. After harvesting, the stem is divided into small bits containing at least two to three beds. Each bit is known as a disc

Plants grown from suckers produce fruit in 15 to 18 months, whereas those from slips, crown, or discs take 20 to 22 months after planting. 
Suckers and slips are cured by stripping off the lower leaves followed by drying in the sun or in partial shade for about a week before planting. This curing is done to avoid the rotting of plants after they are planted. 

Treatment of Pineapple Planting Material  ;

Plant material should be treated with Cereson solution @ 4 gms in 11 liters of water or Dithane M-45 @ 0.2% for the plant protection of PineApple against the Bud- Rot

Planting of Pineapple;

The rainy season is the best time for planting. Planting is done either in flatbeds or in shallow trenches which are filled as the suckers grow and develop. Care should be taken to see that the bud or ‘heart’ of the suckers does not get buried. A single or double row system of planting should be followed. 
In a single-row system plants are spaced 30 to 60 cm apart within rows and rows are kept 75cm apart. 
In the double row system the distance of 30 cm between plants and 60 cm between rows with 1 to 1.5 m between double rows from the center to center. 
The yield can be considerably increased by increasing the plant population. Closer spacing also results in the early crop but reduces the size of fruits. 
Manuring PineApple cultivation;
The fertilizer dose of 100 kg Nitrogen, 50 kg Phosphorus and 100 kg  Potassium per hectare has been recommended in North-East states, In Southern states, 16 g N and 2.5 gK per plant have given good results. Of these, part of nitrogen can be applied as a foliar application of 2-4% urea. Application of fertilizers should be done in a row or three split doses.

Irrigation requirement in Pineapple Cultivation;

Pineapple is most of the time cultivated under rainfed conditions. But the Supplementary irrigation will help to produce good-sized fruits in areas having optimum rainfall. Irrigation also manages to establish an off-season planting to maintain its year round production. Whereas in case of scanty rainfall and hot weather, irrigation may be provided once in 20-25 days.

Intercultural Operation in Pineapple Cultivation;

Weeding should be done at least three to four times a year.  Through hand weeding partially elimination of weedicides  application can be achieved.
Earthing up is one of the essential operations in pineapple cultivation aimed at good growth and development of the Pineapple plants. 
Soon after harvest, the earthing up process is done leaving one to two suckers only. Weeds can be effectively controlled by treatment of agrochemicals like; diuron (@ 2 kg./ha.) or Maybe a combination of Bromacil and diuron @ 2 kg./ha. each as pre-emergent spray and repeated with half of the dose , 5 months after first application.

 Artificial flower induction in PineApple Cultivation;

As pineapple plants do not produce flowers together, it is essential to treat them to bring uniform flowering. Treatment should be given when most of the plants have started flowering so that the remaining could flower at the same time. Spraying of NAA with 10-15 ppm solution and Ethrel with 100 ppm at 40 leaf stage has given good results.

Harvesting and yield of Pineapple Crop;

It takes about 15-20 months to get the matured crop. Usually, flowering takes place from February to April and fruits are ready from July to September. Sometimes, off-season flowers appear and they produce fruits during winter which are of poor quality. 

The fruits are harvested when they just become yellow and the angularities of eyes start reducing and bracts wither. An average yield of 10-15 tonnes per hectare. Fruiting decreases progressively in case of ratooning

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