Cultivation of Groundnut ; A complete Information Guide

Cultivation of Groundnut;A complete  Information Guide

Groundnut (Arachis nypugueu L.) belongs to the family  Leguminosae family. It is an annual plant that grows up to 30 to 60 cms in height. Among all the oilseed crops, groundnut accounts for more than 40 %, acreages, and 60 productions in the country. Groundnut is also known as peanut, earthnut, monkey nut, goober, pinda, and Manilla nut.

Groundnuts appear to have originated or evolved in Brazil South America In India, the plant was introduced by the Portuguese. Groundnut is cultivated on a large scale in all the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The most important groundnut-growing countries are India, China, U.S.A., and West Africa. India rank first in regard to acreage and production.
In India, it is grown over an area of 40.12 lakh hectares (2018-19) with a total production of 37.70 lakh tonnes (2018-19) and productivity of 931 kg/ha. Its cultivation is mostly confined to the Indian states, viz., Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Maharashtra. Groundnut is also an important crop for the states like Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Punjab. 

Nutritive Value of Groundnut;

Cultivation of Groundnut;A complete  Information Guide
Among the oilseed crops, groundnut has first place in India. Groundnut oil has high importance in the manufacture of vegetable oil (vanaspati ghee). Groundnut seed contains about 45 % oil and 26 % protein Groundnut kernel as a whole is highly digestible. It is, in the first place about as concentrated a portion of food as money can buy, one gram supplies 5.8 food calories. This compares with 4.0 calories per gram for sugars, 3.5 calories for whole wheat, 2.6 calories for bread. The nutritive value of groundnut protein is among the highest of the vegetable proteins and equals that of casein.
100 gms of Groundnut nutritive value are as follows —








705 mg


49 g


4 g


25.8 g


92 mg


16 g


168 mg


9 g


4.8 mg


4 g

Vitamin B3

12.07 mg


4 g

Vitamin E

8.33 mg


18 mg

Vitamin B1

0.61 mg

Health Benefits of Using Groundnut/Peanut Oil;

1) Peanut oil helps in weight loss
2) It improves sensitivity to insulin
3) It aids the hair growth
4) Peanut oil is an important anti-aging product
5) It restricts inflammatory problems like arthritis
6) Peanut oil is great for those who have cardiovascular problems
7) It provides you acne-free skin

Classification of  Groundnut; 

(a) Classification According to Waldron
All the types of cultivated groundnuts have been divided into two categories.
(1) The erect or bunch type-include Arachis hypogaea subspecies fastigiata.
(2) The trailing or spreading type-include Arachis hypogaea subspecies procumbens.
(b) Classification according to Specialists of Tamil Nadu State; 
Cultivated A. hypogaea have been classified into five varieties based on the habit of growth, teste color, size, and other characters of pods, leaf characters, etc.
(1) A. hypogaea var. oleifera
(2) A. hypogaea var. nambyquare 
(3) A. hypogaea var. rasteiro 
(4) A. hypogaea var. asiatica 
(5) A. hypogaea var. gigantea
Most of the cultivated groundnuts are described as forms under var. oleifera.

Climatic Requirements for Groundnut Cultivation;

1) Groundnut is essentially a tropical plant. 

2) It requires a long and warm growing season. 
3) The most favorable climatic conditions for groundnut are a well-distributed rainfall of at least 50 centimeters during the growing season, an abundance of sunshine, and relatively warm temperatures. 
4) It seems that plant will grow best when the mean temperature is from 21-26.5°C. 
5) Lower temperatures are not good for its proper development. 
6) During the ripening period, requires about a month of warm and dry weather.

Soil Requirements for Groundnut Cultivation;

1) Groundnut thrives best in well-drained sandy and sandy loam soils, as light soil helps in easy penetration of pegs and their development and also harvesting. 

2) Clay or heavy soils are not suitable for this crop, as they interfere in the penetration of pegs and make harvesting quite difficult. 
3) Groundnut gives good yields in the soil with a pH between 6.0-6.5.

Important Varieties of Groundnut;

Groundnut has three types of varieties 

a) Bunch types with erect plant habit
b) spreading Types 
c) semi-spreading types.
The bunch types have light green foliage, comparatively broad leaflets, and mature early. However, they are usually susceptible to tikka disease. 
The spreading usually has dark green foliage with smaller leaflets. These are usually late in maturity. The semi-spreading type varieties are just intermediate between the bunch and the spreading types. A large number of high-yielding varieties have been evolved in various groundnut growing states for commercial cultivation some of them are as follows. 


Yield Potential (Kg/ha)

Oil content (%)

Recommended for (state/region)

Specific features

Narayani (TCGS 29)



Andhra Pradesh

Tolerant to mid-season moisture stress conditions; recommended for both Kharif and rabi-summer seasons

Phule Unap (JL 286)




Tolerant to LLS, rust and stem rot; also tolerant to thrips, leaf miner and Spodoptera

Vasundhara (Dh 101)



West Bengal, Orissa, Jharkhand and Assam

Tolerant to stem rot and PBND; tolerant to thrips and Spodoptera; suitable for rabi-summer season

AK 265



Southern Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu

Resistant to foliar diseases; drought tolerant; recommended for kharif season

M 548




Tolerant to leaf spots and collar rot; recommended for kharif season

AK 303




Bold seeded (HSM = 80g); recommended for kharif season

TG 51



West Bengal, Orissa, Jharkhand and Assam

Tolerant to stem rot and root rot; suitable for rabi-summer season.

Ajeya (R 2001-3)



Southern Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu

Resistant to PBND; drought tolerant; recommended for kharif season

Girnar 2 (PBS-24030)



Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, northern Rajasthan

Virginia bunch type with ‘stay green’ leaves and bold seeded (HSM =62g); tolerant to rust, LLS PSND; recommended for kharif season

ICGV 00348



Southern Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu

Tolerant to late leaf spot and rust; recommended for kharif season

VRI (Gn) 7



Tamil Nadu

Moderately resistant to leaf miner, LLS and rust; recommended for kharif season

VL- Moongphali-1



Resistant to late leaf spot and root rot; recommended for kharif season

Utkarsh (CSMG 9510)



Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Northern Rajasthan

Resistant to rust, possess fresh seed dormancy up to 40-45 days; recommended for kharif season

VRI (Gn) 6 (VG 9816)



Southern Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu

Tolerant to LLS, rust, PBND; recommended for kharif and rabi-summer seasons

Jawahar Groundnut 23 (JGN 23)



Madhya Pradesh

Tolerant to ELS and LLS; drought tolerant; recommended for kharif season

Kadiri 9



Andhra Pradesh

Tolerant of thrips, jassids, and nematodes. Tolerant to late leaf spot, rust, dry root rot and collar rot. Recommended for kharif season

Kadiri 7



Andhra Pradesh

Tolerant to sucking pests and leaf spots; bold seeded (HSM =65-75 g); recommended for kharif season

Kadiri 8



Andhra Pradesh

Tolerant to sucking pests and leaf spots; bold seeded (HSM = 65-75 g)




All India

Resistant to collar rot and PBND; bold seeded (HSM=73g), recommended for kharif season






GG 21



Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, northern Rajasthan

Recommended for kharif season




AP, Karnataka, TN, Maharashtra

Tolerant to foliar diseases and root rot.

JL 501



Gujarat and southern Rajasthan

Suitable for early as well as late sown rainfed condition

HNG 69



Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, northern Rajasthan

Tolerant to collar rot, stem rot and ELS; recommended for kharif season

Girnar 3





( PBS 12160)



West Bengal, Orissa, Manipur

Tolerant to leaf miner and thrips; recommended for kharif season

Kadiri Haritandhra (K 1319)



Karnataka and Maharashtra

Multiple diseases and insect pests resistant, possess fresh seed dormancy upto 20 days; recommended for rabi-summer season




Uttarakhand (Kharif)

Resistant to LLS and root rot diseases. (State release)




Jharkhanad and Manipur (K)

Resistant to LLS and rust.




Gujarat (Kharif)

Rose colour seed.

Phule vyas (JL-220)




Early maturing, High oil content.




Andhra Pradesh

Suited to Kharif and rabi regions




Andhra Pradesh

Suited to Kharif and rabi areas. Tolerant to mid and end season.

Pratap Raj Mungphalli




Moderately tolerant to ELS, LLS and PBND, Suited for Kharif and Summer




Vidharbha & Southern M.P.

Suitable for rabi/summer




Rajasthan & Punjab

Resistant to collar rot, stem rot, early leaf spot, rust and stem necrosis.

RG 425




Resistant to collar rot and tolerant to drought. Suitable for Kharif.




Western Maharashtra

Resistant to rust, LIS and stem rot and spodoptera

Divya (CSMG-2003-19)



Uttar Pradesh

Resistant to leaf spots and tolerant to BND.




Rajasthan, UP & Punjab

Virginia bunch variety, Tolerant collar rot, stem rot, LLS, Spodoptera




Tamil Nadu & Andhra Pradesh

Tolerant to LLS, rust, stem rot, High fodder value.




Tamil Nadu

Kharif, Resistant to LLS & Rust

GJG-9 ( J69)




Suitable for Summer, tolerant to stem rot.

GJG-22 (JSSP 36)




Suited to Kharif, semi spreading groundnut area. Tolerant to collar rot.

GJG-17 (JSP-48)




Suitable for Kharif, spreading groundnut area. Tolerant to stem rot

Dharani (TCGS-1043)



Andhra Pradesh

Recommended for all the three situations Kharif (rainfed ): June- July Kharif (irrigated ): May Rabi (irrigated ): 2nd fortnight of November- 1st fortnight of December. Timely sown Sandy Clay loams

Rotations and Mixed Cropping in Groundnut crops;

Groundnut is grown in rotation with wheat, gram, pea, barley, etc. It is grown as a mixed crop with bajra, maize, Jowar, Castor and cotton Groundnut can also be followed by safflower where early varieties are grown and moisture remains in the soil at the time of harvest

Field Preparation for the cultivation of Groundnut;

1) Although groundnut is a deep-rooted crop out looking to its underground pod forming habit, deep ploughing should be avoided. 

2) Because deep ploughing encourages the development of pods in deeper layers of soil which makes harvesting difficult. 
3) One ploughing with soil turning plough followed by two harrowings would be sufficient to achieve a good surface tilth up to 12-18 centimeter depth.
4) One or two summer cultivations will minimize weeds and insect pests to a great extent in problem areas.

Seed and Sowing;

a) Selection and Treatment of Seed ;
1) The quality of seeds is of utmost importance for establishing the optimum plant stand. Pods for seed purposes should be stored unshelled in a cool, dry, and ventilated place. 
2) For seed purposes, pods should be shelled by hand one week before sowing. 
3) Hand shelling ensures little damage to seeds. 
4) Pods shelled long before sowing time are liable to suffer from loss of viability and storage damages. 
5) Discard very small, shriveled, and diseased kernels. Only bold seeds should be used for sowing.
6) Treat the selected kernels with 
Thiram or Mancozeb @ 4 g/kg of seed or Carboxin or Carbendazim at 2 g/kg of seed
 to control the various seed and soil-borne diseases. 
7) Seed should be inoculated with proper strain of Rhizobium culture particularly in those places where groundnut is to be grown for the first time.
b) Time of Sowing;
1) Sow the rainfed crop with the advent of monsoon in the last week of June or in the first week of July. 
2) Complete the sowing as early as possible as delayed sowing causes a progressive reduction in the yield. 
3) Where irrigation facilities are available, sow groundnut around 20th June or 10-12 days before the onset of monsoon with pre-sowing irrigation. This helps in the best utilization of monsoon by the crop because all the germination will take place before rains start which ultimately results in a higher yield. It will also help in getting the field vacated in time for the sowing of Rabi crops.
4) In the southern part of the country where groundnut is sown in the Rabi season also, it should be sown in the month of November and December
c) Seed Rate spacing and Method  of Sowing ;
1) Seed Rate; Seed rate depends upon the spacing, Kernal Size, type of variety, etc. The recommended seed rate for groundnut are as follows;
a) For Spreading type variety; 80 -100 kg /hectare
b) For Bunching type variety; 100-125 Kg/hectare
2) Spacing;
 Spreading Types Varieties ; 60 x 10 cms
 Bunching Type Varieties ;     45 x 10 cms   
3) Sowing Method;  Sowing should be done about 5 centimeters deep behind the plough or with the help of a dibbler or seed planter. On a large scale, seed planters can be used

Manure and Fertilizer Requirements in Groundnut Crop;

1) Just like the other legumes, groundnut meets the major part of its nitrogen requirement through nitrogen fixation.

2) However, in the application of 20-40 kg nitrogen per hectare as a starter dose is given to meet the nitrogen requirement of the crop in the initial stage in poor fertility soils. 
3) If farmyard manure or compost is available, 10-15 tonnes may be added per hectare about 15-20 days before sowing. 
4) If nitrogen is to be applied through fertilizers, prefer ammonium sulphate. It provides sulphur in addition to nitrogen. 
5) The soil should be tested for the availability status of phosphorus and potassium and fertilizer recommendations for groundnut are obtained. 
6) In the absence of a soil test, it would be advisable to apply about 50-60 kg P2O5, and about 30-40 kg K20 per hectare to meet the requirement of the crop. Phosphorus should be applied preferably through superphosphate. 
7) The fertilizers should be placed at the time of sowing about 4-5 centimeters in the side of the seed and 4-5 centimeters below the seed level. 
8) Calcium too has a pronounced effect on the proper development of pods and kernels. Therefore, care should be taken to ensure that soil has sufficient calcium. Apply gypsum at the rate of 125 kg per hectare.

Water Management in Groundnut Cultivation; 

1) Being a rainy season crop, groundnut does not require irrigation However, if a dry spell occurs, irrigation may become necessary.

2) One irrigation should be given at the pod development stage. The field should be well-drained.
3) In the southern part of the country where groundnut is grown in the Rabi season too, three to four irrigations are necessary. 
4) Give the first irrigation at the start of flowering and the subsequent irrigations whenever required during the fruiting period to encourage peg penetration and pod development. 
5) The last irrigation before harvesting will facilitate the full recovery of pods from the soil.

Weed Control and Earthing in Groundnut Cultivation;

1) Normally, one or two hand hoeings and weddings should be done depending upon soil type and severity of weed infestation.

 2) The first hoeing should be done three weeks after sowing and the second, three weeks thereafter before the commencement of flowering. 
3) Care should be taken that soil should not be distributed at the pod formation stage. 
4)  Chemical Control of weeds; Weeds can also be controlled effectively by the following application –

a) Pre-sowing Application; Fluchloralin at 2.0 l/ha soil applied and incorporated followed by light irrigation.
b) Pre-emergence Application;  Fluchloralin 2.0 l/ha or Pendimethalin @ 3.3 l/ha applied on the third day after sowing through a flat-fan nozzle with 500 l of water/ha followed by irrigation. After 35 – 40 days hand weeding should be given.

cPostemergence Application; Spray Imazethapyr @ 750 ml/ha at 20-30 days after sowing based on weed density..

5) The earthing up should also be taken up simultaneously with intercultural operations. The basic idea of earthing up is to promote easy penetration of pegs in the soil to provide more area to spread.

Diseases and Pest Management in Groundnut ;

a) Disease Management;
1) Seed and Pre-Emergence Rot ;
Rhizopus sp., Penicillium sp., and Aspergillus sp. are some of the common fungi which cause seed and pre-emergence rots. Due to these diseases, a patchy stand of the groundnut crop is usually seen. This is because of the poor seed germination and seedling rots. The seedlings which make their way on the soil surface remain stunted and seldom develop to maturity.
Control Measures
Seed should be treated with Thiram at the rate of 3 g per kg seed.
2)Tikka Disease of Groundnut ;
This disease is caused by the two species of the fungus, Cercospora; i.e., C. personala and C. arachidicola. It spreads rapidly at a temperature above 22°C and when the relative humidity is higher. Small dark brown circular spots appear on the leaves. When the attack is severe, defoliation occurs and only the stem remains. The yield of susceptible varieties is substantially reduced.
Control Measures
(1) Treat the seed with Thiram at the rate of 3 g per kg seed. (2) Collect the affected plant debris and burn them. 
(3) Give 4 sprays  Zineb at the rate of 2 kg in 1000 liters of water per hectare at an interval of seven to ten days. The first spray should be given as soon as initial symptoms are detected. Two sprays of Bavistin have been found very effective against this disease.Spray 0.05 percent solution of Bavistin. 
(4) Grow some of the tolerant varieties
3) Sclerotium Rot of Groundnut ;
This disease is caused by the soil-borne fungus, Sclerotium rosii. The affected plant parts show the development of the white thread-like fungal growth near the soil surface or just below the ground level. The affected plant parts later turn brown and small round bodies of about the size of a mustard seed are produced on the surface of the affected tissue. The leaves turn yellow and then brown and later desiccate.
Control Measures
(1) Collect and burn the affected plant debris. 
(2) Seed should be treated with Brassicol at the rate of 3 percent.
(3) If the soil is infested heavily and there is no choice of crop to be followed in rotation, soil application of Brassicol at the rate of lo. 15 kg per hectare is beneficial before sowing.
4) Rosette
This disease is caused by the virus transmitted through aphids. The plants affected by this disease look stunted and present a bushy appearance. There is a marked reduction in the size of the leaflets and mottling becomes visible.
Control Measures
(1) Rogue out the infected plants as soon as they appear in the field. 
(2) To check the spread of the disease, aphids should be killed by giving a spray of Metasystox 25 EC at the rate of 1 liter dissolved in 1000 liters of water per hectare.
5) Charcoal Rot; 
This disease is caused by the soil-borne fungus, Macrophomina phaseoli. A red-brown water-soaked lesion appears on the stem just above the soil level The lesion spreads upwards on the stem and down into the roots and causes the death of the plants. The dead tissue is covered with abundant sclerotia.
Control Measures
(1) Deep ploughing should be followed to bury the crop residues. (2) Seed should be treated with Brassicol at the rate of 3 g per kg seed. (3) Soil application of Brassicol at the rate of 10-15 kg per hectare before sowing should be done.
6) Rust
This disease is caused by the fungus, Puccinia arachidis. The symptoms of the disease are characterized by the development of red pustules on leaves. Usually, more pustules are found on the lower than on the upper surface. The pustules, later on, become dark brown. Under severe conditions, defoliation and death of plants occur.
Control Measures 
(1) Destroy by burning the diseased plant debris left over after harvesting. 
(2) Spray Zineb at the rate of 2 kg in 1000 liters of water per hectare. The first spray should be given as soon as the initial symptoms are observed. Three more sprays should be taken up at 10 days intervals after the first spray.
b) Pest Management ;
Groundnut is attacked by several insect pests. The major pest
which attack the groundnut crop and their control measures are given
1) Groundnut Aphid;
It is a polyphagous pest and both adults and nymphs prefer to feed on young shoots causing the leaves to curl due to decapping and subsequently, the growth of the plant is stunted. Flowers and pods are also affected. They also transmit a virus disease known as the rosette. Insects are mostly seen in colonies on the underside of the leaves, top shoots, and stems. The peak period of activity is during August. It prefers spreading and semi-spreading varieties as compared to bunch varieties
Control Measures;
Spray the crop either 
Chlorpyrifos 20%EC 1000 ml/ha or

Imidacloprid 17.8% SL 100-125 ml/ha or Methyl demeton 25% EC 1000 ml/ha

 2) Groundnut Leaf Miner;
The adults are small dark brown moths with a pale white dot on the front margin of the forewing. These moths lay minute eggs on tender shoots. The dark-headed greenish-to-brown larvae mine into tender leaves that look like blister mine. In the later stage of larva, it brings together the several leaflets, webs them and feeds leisurely inside the fold. The attacked plants do not grow properly. This insect remains active from July to December
Control Measures
Same as for aphids.
They feed on the roots of the groundnut crop with the result that the plants wither. The attack continues on pods. This weakens the shells and makes them liable to shatter or crack during harvest.
Control Measures;
Spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC  or chlorpyriphos dust @ 30-40 kg/ha in the soil before sowing in endemic areas
Seed treatment with chlorpyriphos @ 6.5ml /kg of seed may reduce termite damage
4) White Grub
With the first shower of rain in June, the beetles emerge from the soil and live for a few days. These beetles feed voraciously on ber, guava, neem, and other shrubs. They lay eggs in groundnut fields. White grubs live in soil and remain active from July to September. The grubs feed on the functional roots of the plant, leaving behind only tap roots. Grub-infested plants turn pale, leaves and branches drop down, and the plant withers and can be easily uprooted. It ultimately dies resulting in patchy crop growth.
Control Measures;
The incidence of the white grub population in the field may be checked by spraying
 anyone of the following insecticides
Carbofuran 3%CG 33.3 kg/ha or Chlorpyrifos 20%EC 1100 ml/ha or Phorate 10%CG 25 kg/ha
5) Thrips
The adults as well as nymphs rasp the upper surface of the developing leaflets and suck the sap from them. As a result, the leaflets present a scarred or dried-up appearance. In case of severe infestation, the plants look malformed and stunted. The leaflets lose their healthy green appearance and the undersurface of leaves develops a brown coloration. The adults are dirty whitish in color with fringed wings.
Control Measures
Same as for aphids.
6)Bihar Hairy Caterpillar;
The caterpillars in their early stages feed gregariously on the lower surface of the leaves and the attacked leaves look like dirty paper. When grown up, they disperse all over the field and devour the leaves and top tender shoots. The badly affected crop is completely defoliated.
Control Measures
(1) Collect the egg masses and destroy them. 
(2) Apply quinalphos 25 EC (2 ml/lit) or chlorpyriphos 20 EC (2.5 ml/lit) or Dichlorvos 76% EC (2.0 ml/lit) recommended when the caterpillars are younger
7) Green Stink Bug
Adults, as well as nymphs, suck the sap from softer tissues causing plants to become weak and pale. They also inject some toxic material while feeding, due to which the terminal shoots die.
Control Measures
Same as for aphids.

Harvesting and Threshing;

Cultivation of Groundnut;A complete  Information Guide

1) It is necessary to dig the pods at the right time for obtaining higher yields of pods and oil.

2) Nut takes two months to attain full development.
3) A fully mature pod will be difficult to split easily with finger pressure. This stage is achieved when the vine begins to turn yellow and the leaves start shedding, 
4) Harvesting should be done when a good percentage of nuts are fully developed and fairly intact. 
5) In the case of a bunch type of groundnut, the plants are harvested by pulling. 
6) Harvesting of spreading type of groundnut is done by spade, local plough, or with the help of a blade harrow or groundnut digger.
7) Leave the harvested crop in small heaps for two-three days for curing. 
8) After curing, collect the crop in one place and detach the pods either by hand or using a groundnut plucker for separating the pods from the plants.

The yield of Ground Nut Crop;

By adopting the above-mentioned agronomical practices, it will be possible to obtain about 15-20 quintals of pods per hectare from bunch-type varieties and 20-30 quintals per hectare from spreading varieties.

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