Cultivation of Brinjal or eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)

Cultivation of  Brinjal  or  eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)

Brinjal or eggplant is the most common crop of tropical regions it is commercially grown in almost all parts of the country. Brinjal is a perennial crop but cultivated commercially as an annual crop.

It is one of the important vegetables of the plains that remains available throughout the year. A large number of the cultivar are grown in the country which depends upon various shape, size , and colour of the fruits Besides being used as a cooked vegetable: it is popular for the preparation of various dishes in different regions of the country.

Common Name of Brinjal in India;

Baingan (Hindi ), Begun (Bengali), Badane (Kannada), Waangum (Kashmiri), Vange (Marathi), Ringa (Gujrati), Baigan (Oriya), ashuthana(Malayalam), Kathiri(Tamil),Venkya(Telgu),Peethabhala(Sankskrit)

Nuritive and Medicinal Value of Brinjal;

Brinjal or Eggplant is a very rich of dietary fiber, vitamin B1 and copper. It is also a good source of manganese, vitamin B6, niacin, potassium, folate and vitamin K. Brinjal plant also contains phytonutrients like as nasunin and chlorogenic acid. Brinjal is also known for its medicinal properties and has got de-cholestrolizing property. primarily due to the presence of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and lenolenic) present in flesh and seeds of fruit in higher amount (65.1%). Presence of magnesium and potassium salt in fruits also impart de-cholestrolizing action. 

In our native medicines, the role of brinjal in the treatment of liver diseases, cough due to allergy, rheumatism, cholelithiasis, leucorrhea and intestinal worms have been mentioned

Climate Requirement for Brinjal Crop ;

Brinjal is warm climate day neutral crop and is susceptible to the frost. lower temperature causes the deformation of the brinjal fruits. A long growing warm season with a temperature range of 21degree celsius to 27-degree Celsius is most suitable for brinjal production.

Soil Requirement for Brinjal;

Brinjal crop can be grown in all kind of soil . Light soil is good for early yields whereas silty loam is well suited for good yields. Soil should be well-drained rich in organic matter with a pH range of 6.75 to 7.5 for its cultivation.

Seasons ;

There are three main seasons of the brinjal crop in India.

  • Autumn- winter Crop;  Sown in June Transplanted in July 
  • Spring-Summer crop; Sown in early November and transplanted in  January – February.
  • Rainy Season Crop; Sown in March -April and transplanted in  April May.  

Varieties of Brinjal ;

1) Varieties developed By IIHR  ;

Arka Kusumakar –        Small green fruits are borne in clusters of 5-7
Arka Sheel  –                  Medium long deep shining purple fruits.
Arka Nidhi (BWR 12)-  Resistant to bacterial wilt, medium long blue                                                             Black glossy fruits.
Arka Shirish  –               Extra-long fruits with green colour
Arka Neelkanth –           Resistant to bacterial wilt, short purple fruits                                                              Borne in clusters of two
 Arka Keshav –               Resistant to bacterial wilt, Fruits long red                                                                  Purple and glossy
2) Brinjal varieties developed by IARI ;
Pusa Kranti – Oblong, 15-20 cm long dark purple fruits
Pusa Purple Cluster – 10-12 cm long deep purple fruits borne in clusters                                                           tolerant to bacterial wilt
Pusa purple long-Long purple glossy fruits
Pusa Anupam (KT4) – Cylindrical purple fruits borne in clusters
DBR 8 –  Round dark purple fruits of 295g
Pusa purple round – Fruits round and purple
 Pusa Bairav  – Resistant to phomopsis blight. Fruits long and purple.
Pusa Uttam – Early variety with oval dark purple fruits.
Pusa Utkar – Early variety with round dark purple fruits.
 Pusa Bindu –  Early. Small oval-round violet-purple fruits.
Pusa AnkurFruits oval round, dark purple, and glossy.
Hybrid Brinjal Varieties ; 
IARI, New Delhi –
Pusa Anmol Pusa –   Produce 80% more than Pusa Purple Long, yield 62t/ha
Pusa Hybrid 5 –  Long glossy dark purple fruits. Yield 51.6t/ha
Pusa Hybrid 6 – Early. Round glossy purple fruits. Yield 45.0t/ha
Pusa hybrid 9 – Early dark purple round fruits. Yield 56.0t/ha
 IIHR, Bangalore –
Arka Navneeth –  Large dark purple round to slightly  oval fruits. Yield 65-75                                       t/ha
Arka Anand –   Resistant to bacterial wilt, fruits green long & medium sized (50- 55g). yield 65t/ha
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore –
COBH 1-   Fruits are purple in colour. High yield 56.40 t/ha
 Haryana Agrl. Hisar University –
 Hisar Shyamal (H8 ) –  Resistant to bacterial wilt, tolerant to little leaf, rufts round bright purple
 Kerala Agrl. University, Thrissur –
Neelima –  Resistant to bacterial wilt, protracted fruiting. Round to oval purple fruits. Yield 62 t/ha
GAU, Anand –
ABH 1–  Early variety with purple oval fruits, yield     37.0t/ha
CSAUA&T, Kanpur
Azad Kranti –  Long dark purple fruits
GBPUA &T, Pantnagar –
Pant Brinjal Hybrid 1–  Tolerant to bacterial wilt. Fruit long and borne in                                                           clusters

Sowing of Brinjal Crop ;

Seeds are sown on nursery beds and transplanted after 4 weeks during summer and 7-8 weeks in winter conditions.
Seed Rate ;
                         Varieties; 400 gms./hactare
Hybrids; 200 gms/hectare
Seed Treatment;
Seeds are treated with  Trichoderma viride @ 4 g / kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g / kg of seed.
Rasing of Nursery Bed ;
1) Prepare the nursery bed of size 3meter x 1 meter with a height of0.15 meters height. 
2) Apply 10 kg. of FYM, 1 kg. of neem cake, and 50 gms of VAM in each bed. 
3) Enrich the soil with 100 gms of superphosphate fertilizer and 10 gms. of Furadan @ per square meter.
4) For the preparation of a 1-hectare nursery, a 100 square meter area is required. 
5) Sow the seed at 1 cm of depth in rows of 5 cms apart
6) After sowing cover the bed with a mixture of well rotten manure and fine soil particles if require press the soil cover gently.
7) After sowing cover the bed with wheat husks or dry leaves.
8) There should be no water stagnation in the beds to avoid the damping-off disease.
9) After germination uncovers the nursery bed. To control the fungal and viral diseases apply captan @ 2 gms /liter of water and endosulfan @ 1 ml/liter of water after 15days of nursery sowing. During winter sowing the nursery should be protected by polythene cover against frost damage.
Transplanting ; 
 Seedings of the 4-5 weeks (12-15cms plant height with 3 to 4 leaf stage) are ready to transplant in the main field. Transplanting should be accomplished during the evening hours followed by irrigation.

  •    For Varieties;  60 x60 Cms.
  •    For Hybrids; 90 x60 Cms. 

Irrigation ;

1) Brinjal crop is very sensitive to the waterlogging conditions timely irrigation must be given especially at the time of flowering & fruit setting.
2) In planes, irrigation should be given at the interval of 4-5days 
3) In summers while in winter at 10-15 days intervals. 
4) During the winters there should be enough moisture in the field to avoid frost damage. 

Inter-cultivation in Brinjal Crop ; 

1) It is very essential to keep the field weed-free especially during the early vegetative growth and it is usually done by frequently hoeing and earthing soils at regular intervals This facilitates good soil aeration and root development. 2) Orabanche  spis the most serious root parasite weed of the Brinjal crop it should be handled carefully.
3) Pre -Plant soil application of fluchoralin @1 – 1.5 kg/hectare or Oxadizon @ 0.5kg,/hectare should be applied to control the weeds.
4) A pre-plant spray of Alachlor  @ 1.5 kg. /hectare is also very effective to control the weeds.

Manuring and fertilizer requirements;

  1) About 20-25 tonnes of F.Y.M. per hectare is applied at the time of field preparation. A dose of 100 kg each of N, and 50 kg potash and 50 kg P  per hectare are given for good yield. 1/3 rd of nitrogen, the full amount of P and K should be given as a basal dose. 

2) The remaining amount of urea should be applied in three split doses after the 30, 45, and 60 days of transplanting in the form of top dressing.
3) Apply 2 kg of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria in the main field at planting. Spray 2 ppm (1 ml in 500 lit.)Triacontanol plus Sodium borate or Borax 35 mg/lit. of water 15 days after transplanting and at the time of full bloom to increase the yield.

Disease and Pest Management of Brinjal Crop ;

Disease Management ; 
1) Damping Off: (Pythium spp., Phytophthora spp., Rhizoctonia spp., Sclerotium spp., Sclerotinia spp.)

The symptom of dumping off disease can be seen in both  Pre-emergence and Post-emergence stages.  
In the Pre-emergence; the germinating seeds are infected by fungi at the initial stage. while in  Post-emergence; The infection later spreads to hypocotyls basal stem and developing roots.
The Post-emergence damping-off phase can be visualized by infection of the young, juvenile tissues of the collar at the ground level. The affected seedlings become pale green and brownish lesions are found at the collar region,  which results in bottling and topple over of seedlings.
Control; Seeds treatment with Trichoderma viride 4 g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g /kg of seed 24 hours before sowing. Spray Pseudomonas fluorescens as soil application @ 2.5 kg/ha mixed with 50 kg of FYM.  Water stagnation should be avoided. Drenching can be done with Copper oxychloride at 2.5 g/lit at 4 lit/sq.m
2) Alternaria Blight (Alternaria spp.)

 It Causes a characteristic spot on the brinjal leaves with concentric rings. Infested leaves may drop off. Brinjal fruits may also be affected that turn yellow and it may drop off prematurely. 

Control;.Follow long term crop rotation with a non-solanaceous crop, Grow resistant varieties, Provide proper drainage, Drench the soil with a mixture of Bavistin (0.1%)
3) Bacterial Wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum);

The characteristic symptoms include wilting of the foliage followed by the collapse of the entire plant. The wilting is characterized by dropping and slight yellowing of leaves and vascular discoloration. Drying of plants at the time of flowering and fruiting are also characteristic of the disease condition. The affected cut stems pieces when dipped in water, a white milky stream of bacterial oozes coming out which is the diagnostic symptom for bacterial wilt.

 Control; Crop rotation must be followed. Rogue out the infected plants and destroy them, Raise nursery in disease-free beds. Soil fumigation with Formalin at 7% before sowing. .Seed treatment with Streptocycline @150 ppm for ninety minutes.
4) Mosaic.
Leaves of infected brinjal plants exhibit mottling with raised dark green areas. Blisters are formed on the leaves and the size of leaves is reduced. The virus is transmitted through seeds and by aphids. 
Control; Seeds should be collected from virus-free plants. Roughout the infected plants from the field.,Spray Dimlethoate (0.05%) or Monocrotophos(0.05% at 10 days interval)
Pest Management in Brinjal Crop ; 
1)Fruit and shoot borer (Leucinodes orbonalis);

 Fruit and shoot borer is the most destructive pest of brinjal. It is widely present in the Indian sub-continent and also in Thailand, Laos, South Africa, Congo, and Malaysia. It also Damages potatoes and other solanaceous crops. This pest is active around the year at places having moderate climate but it is adversely affected by severe cold (To improve this paragraph). The damage by this insect initiated just after transplanting of the seedlings and continues till harvest of fruits. Eggs are laid singly on the ventral surface of leaves, shoots, and flower-buds and occasionally on fruits. In young brinjal plants, the presence of wilted drooping shoots is the typical symptom of damage by this pest; these affected shoots ultimately wither and die away. 

Control; Rogue out all infected brinjal plants and destroy them, Apply Carbaryl (0.1%) or Endosulfan (0.05%) or Cypermethion (0.01%) as soon as an infestation is observed and repeat the spray after 15 days.
2) Brinjal Fruit Borer (Helicoverpa armigera) ;

The pest is polyphagous in nature. The full-grown larvae are greenish with dark broken grey lines along the side of the body. They measure about 35-45 mm long. The moth of this pest is quite larger and brownish in color with a V-shaped speck and dull black border on the hind wings. The larvae are first starting their feeding on leaves and fruiting bodies of the plants and at later stages, they bore into the fruits, completely eating away the internal contents.

Control; Spray  the  Malathion (0.1%) or Endosulfan (0.05%) or Monocrotophos (0.05%) on the affected crop.
3) Aphids (Lipaphis erysimi);

The nymphs and adults of the aphids are just like a louse and creamy greenish in color. The most active period of this pest is between December to March when various cruciferous and vegetable crops are available in the fields. The damage is done by its nymphs and adults by sucking cell sap from the brinjal leaves, stems, inflorescence or the developing plants. They are seen feeding in large groups, very often they cover the entire surface to feeding on cell sap, the vitality of plants is greatly reduced. The leaves acquire a curly shape in appearance.

Control;  Application of Malathion (0.1%) or Endosulfan (0.05%) or Monocrotophos (0.05%) is prescribed for its control.
4) Jassids (Amrasca bigutella);

The nymphs and adults of this insects are very agile and more briskly forward the sideways. Adults are about 3 mm long and greenish-yellow in colour during summer periods, while acquires a reddish tinge during the winter periods. Nymphs and adults remain in large groups and suck the sap from the undersurface of the leaves. They inject the toxin saliva into the plant tissues during their feeding process. The leaves show characteristic symptoms of hopper burn such as yellowing upward curling, bronzing and even drying of leaves. The crop growth becomes stunted and is very often in highly susceptible varieties it may cause complete mortality of the plants.

Control ;  To control damage from this insect Spray carbaryl (0.1%) or Endosulfan (0.05) or Phoshamidon (0.04%) at 10 days interval.
5) Root-Knot Nematodes ;

Plant-parasitic nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.i.e. incognita, javanica) are the most common in India and infestation due to these parasitic nematodes is very common in brinjal. The root-knot nematode gives more harmful damage to brinjal seedling rather than to older plants. These nematodes infestation cause root galls in the roots of the brinjal plant. The infected plant becomes stunted and the leaves show chlorotic symptoms. The infestation of these nematodes greatly reduces the yield of the crop. 

Control;  Deep summer ploughing., Follow crop rotation, Grow resistant verities like Black beauty, Banaras Ginat.,Incorporate Carbofuran or phorate @ 25 kg/ ha in the soil.
The first picking of the fruit starts about 120-130 days of seed sowing depending on the variety. The harvesting of the fruits should be accomplished as soon as the fruit attains a good size and color. when the Fruits become greenish-yellow or bronze and their flesh turns a little bit dry and tough is the best time for harvesting. Since all the fruits do not mature at the same time, the fruits should be harvested at an interval of 8-10 days.

Yield ;
Varieties: 22 to 27 t/ha


Hybrids: 55 – 75 t/ha


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