You can save the vegetable seed from your existing crop for the next season of sowing. Saving involves—
- The best suitable plant from which seeds have to save
- Harvesting the seed right time
- Storing the seed properly
Seeds from biennial crops such as carrots or beets are harder to save since the plants need two growing seasons to set seed.
Open-pollinated varieties are those, if properly isolated from other varieties in the same plant species, will produce seed that is genetically “true to type.” This means that the seed will result in a plant very similar to the parent. … Seed from a hybrid variety can be saved, but will not be true to type.
- Plants grown from a hybrid seed are not identical to the parent’s qulitative and quantitative characterstics.
- They will be a completely new combination of the good and bad characteristics of the plants from the initial cross.
- It is quite impossible to predict just how the seedling plant will perform or what qualities the fruit will have.
Vegetable seed Conservation
Choose only the most vigorous plants with the best-tasting fruit as parents for the next year’s crop. Do not save seed from weak or off-type plants.
Seed Conservation in Vegetable Crops
1. Fruit Vegetable
Brinjal. The fruits are allowed to ripen on the plants. The fully ripe fruits are harvested and kept for some days in cool places. Then the seeds are! separated from the pulp and they should be dipped into the water. The healthy seed should then be dried in partial shade before storing.
Tomato. The recommended varieties from which seeds are to be! extracted are grown at an isolation distance of 25 to 60 meters depending upon the type of seed to be produced. Fully ripe fruits are harvested from the selected varieties. The seed along with the pulp is left in a wooden container to ferment for two to three days before extraction. The seed is then extracted by vigorous stirring and washing. The acid and alkali method is now used to avoid of handling the fermented material.
The acid method is more common. 100 ml of commercial hydrochloric acid is thoroughly mixed and stirred for every 11 kg of pulp and left for about 30 minutes. The pulp is then again stirred and the seed is washed.
Chilli. Chilies are cross-pollinated to some extent. It is essential to kept an isolation distance of 200 meters between two varieties. The fully ripe fruits are harvested and dried in sun for four to five days. The dried fruits are stored in an airtight container. The fruits are removed from them, broken and then the seeds are extracted before sowing.
Turnip. The seed is sown from August to September for seed production The fully developed roots are uprooted and retransplanted after removing the tops in autumn at distance of 60 x 60 cm. The land is irrigated at a regular interval. The plants are harvested when 60 to 70 percent of their turns yellowish-brown in color. The plants are dried in sum and the seeds are then separated from them. The seeds are stored in a airtight container after drying it for four to five days in sun.
The seed production of carrot and beet is the same as that for radish
The onion is mainly a cross-pollinated crop. The seed is produced by bulb to seed method and seed to seed method. A medium-sized bulb is selected for planting for seed production. The bulbs are planted by the first fortnight of October at a spacing of 45 x 30 cm. In case of seed to seed method, Seeds are sown in August in the nursery bed and the seedlings are transplanted in September in the main field. The seed head, in which seeds are just ready to shatter, are harvested and dried in sun and then threshed by hand, sieved graded, and stored for next sowing in the next session
Legumes are self-pollinated crop seeds. Once collected from pure varieties will breed true to type. For stock seed production, roughing is a compulsory operation. The fully ripe and dried fruits are harvested and dried in sun for four to five days. Then the seeds are separated from the fruits and dried in sun and stored in an airtight container.
6. Green Vegetables
Green vegetables produce seeds freely. The plants are allowed to grow freely for seed production. The plants are harvested when the fruits are fully ripening and dried in sun. Then the seeds are collected by threshing the plant by hand. The seeds are stored in an airtight container after drying it in sun for four to live days.