Cultivation of Brussels Sprouts in India; A Full Information Guide
Brussels sprouts ( Brassica oleracea L.Var. gemmifera De) Belong to the family Cruciferae. Brussels sprouts are hardy, long-season crops and are very closely resembles the cole crops This vegetable crop grown in the cool hill region. The sprouts or heads resemble miniature cabbages. It is borne in the axial of leaves along and around the main stock progressively from the bottom upwards. It looks like a miniature cabbage and grows to 60 to 90 cm. tall.
The crop gets its name from the city of Brussels in Belgium where this crop has been grown for several hundred years This plant is of obscure European origin and was possibly grown in Belgium as early as 1200.
Nutritive Value of Brussel Sprout;
The nutritive value of Brussels sprouts per 100 gm of an edible portion is given below ;
Moisture = 85.5 gm,Protein = 4.7, Fat=0.5, Carbohydrates = 7.1 gms , Fibre= 1.2 gms ,Vitamin A = 210 IU, Vitamin C= 72.0 mg., Minerals =1.0 gm. Phosphorus = 80.0 gms Calcium = 50.0 gms,Iron = 2.3 gms
Climatic Requirement for Brussel Sprout Cultivation;
Brussel sprouts grow well in the cool humid region.it gives the best yield if it has grown between the temperature range between 15-18 degrees celsius
Soil & its preparation for Brussel Sprout’s cultivation;
It can grow on all types of soil. But sandy loam soil with a pH range between 6 – 6.8 is more suitable for its cultivation.
Land should be prepared by 5 or 6 ploughings followed by planking. Planking is essential to make soil pulverized and leveled.
Important Varieties of Brussel Sprouts;
(a) Varieties are classified according to height.
(1) Dwarf (below 50 cm): Early Dwarf, Dwarf Gem, Catskill, and Dwarf perfection.
(2) Intermediate (50 to 60 cm): Long Island Half-Dwarf, Convent Garden, Dalkeith, and Paris Market.
(3) Tall Caboue 50 cm: Amagar Market and Danish Prize.
(b) Varieties are classified according to the life cycle
(1) Early varieties: Top Score, Peet Gynt, and Passiful.
(2) Late varieties: Lanocolar, Sunline, and Goldmine.
(3) Hybrid varities: King Arthur, Peer Gynt, Craton, Merton, Rola cross, Uremo Post, Topgrade No. 6977, Tops core, Trigomox, Berner Market (Swiss hybrid), Jade cross (Japan hybrid), Lanceolat, Orion, etc.
Description of some important varieties are as follows;
1.Jade Cross E: The sprouts of this variety are big in size and can be removed easily from stalk than with mother strain. It takes 90 days to maturity after the transplanting.
2.Royal Marvel: The sprouts arrangement of this variety are very compact. This variety is highly productive and has resistant to ‘bottom rot’ and ‘tip burn’. It is ready to harvest after 85 days of transplanting.
3.Bubbles: This variety is hardy and has the ability to tolerate warm conditions. importantly, it shows the resistance to rust, and its maturity period is about 80-85 days.
4.Rubine: It is a novel variety. The sprouts give a reddish appearance. It is a late-maturing variety and takes about 105 days to harvest.
5.Oliver: The sprouts of this variety are very attractive in shape and can be detached easily from the stalk. Its maturity is about 85 days after the transplanting.
6.Prince Marvel: The sprouts of this variety are compact & sweet in taste. It is ready to harvest after 90 days of the transplanting
Sowing of Brussel sprouts seeds;
The seedlings are transplanted when they become 15-20 cm tall. The seedlings are transplanted with 50 cm spacing.
Manuring in Brussels Sprouts; Fertilizers scheduled per acre:
60 -72 kg. Too high a level of Nitrogen produced coarse open spouts.
Intercultural operation in Brussels Sprouts ;
Two or three hoeing-cum-weeding should be done to remove the harmful weeds as well as to make the soil porous which permits better aeration and thus promotes root growth. The terminal buds or lower leaves are often removed to get good and early sprouts. Removal of terminal bud produces larger sprouts but the number is decreased. The yield may also reduce if the lower leaves are removed.
Irrigation in Brussels Sprouts;
Harvesting of Brussel Sprouts;
Yield depends on the type of variety grown and cultural practices adopted in the fields. The average yield in the first harvesting is about 16 – 18 Q/Acre and 25-30 Q/Acre in subsequent harvesting