Cultivation of Sprouting Broccoli in India; A Full Informational Guide
Sprouting Broccoli ( Brassica oleracea Var. italica.) belongs to the family Cruciferae. Sprouting Broccoli is extensively used in Italy and from there it has spread to the United States and other countries. In sprouting broccoli, the main stem is produced terminally on a fleshy, branching, and elongated stem. Besides terminal heads, longer, more slender, and smaller heads appear in the axil of leaves.
There are two types of broccoli Head type and Sprout type
Heading broccoli forms curd-like cauliflower; while sprouting broccoli contains a group of green immature buds and thick fleshy flower stalk forming a head. Sprouting broccoli is more popular in India.
On the basis of color, there are three types of broccoli;
(I) Green Broccoli. It is the most nutritive and Popular variety.
(ii) White Broccoli
(iii) Purple Broccoli
Nutritive value of Sprouting Brocolli;
The nutritive value of sprouting Broccoli per 100 gm. of an edible portion is given below ;
Water = 84.8 gms, Protein =4.7gms, Fats = 0.5 gms ,Carbohydrates = 8.7 gms, Fibre = 1.2 gms, Vitamin = A 400 IU, Vitamin B (Combined) = 0.42 mg, Vitamin C= 100.0 mg ,Vitamin K = 400.0 mg, Vitamin E= 2.3 mg, Calcium = 29.0 mg , Maganese = 20.0 mg ,Iron = 1.3 mg , Phosphorus = , Sulphur = 78.0 mg Chlorine = 40.0 mg
It has 130 times more vitamin A in comparison to cauliflower and 22 times more than cabbage
Soil & Climate requirement for Sprouting Broccoli
1) Broccoli is a cool-season crop and it is sensitive to extreme low and high temperatures.
2) The optimum temperature range of 10-25 degrees celsius is best for the proper growth of the crop.
3) Sandy and silt-loam soils are most suited for sprouting Broccoli.
4) It can be grown well in drained upland soil. Heavy soil is not fit for its cultivation does well at a pH of 5.8 to 7.2.
5) The land should be prepared by ploughing followed by planking
Varieties of Sprouting Broccoli;
Sprouting Broccoli has green, white, purple coloured varieties but only green types are generally Cultivated.
Early Varieties; These takes 60-70 days to mature Viz;
(1) De Cicco (4) Green Bud (7) Sparten Early
(2) Waltham 29 (5) Green Mountain (8) Coastal
(3) Atlantic (6) Palam Samridhi (9) Pusa KTS-1
Medium Variety; – It matures in 90-110 days
Green Sprouting Medium
Late Variety – It matures in 110-120 days
Green Sprouting Late
F1 Hybrids by private sector;
(1) Southern Comet (5) Premium Crop (9) Stiff
(2) Laser (6) Corsair (10)Excalibur
(3) Emerald Corona (7)Green Surf (late)
(4) Late Corona (8) Clipper
Sowing of Sprouting Broccoli seeds
(al Time of sowing seed The seeds are sown during February-May in March on hills. Seeds are sown in well prepared the plains and February March on hills. Seeds are nursery beds. Direct seeding is also be done.
(b) Seed rate: 10.50 gm per acre.
The seedlings become ready after 4-6 weeks of sowing. The seedling is transplanted at a distance of about 60-70 cm from row to row and 45-6 om tom plant to plant
Manuring in Sprouting Broccoli
Sprouting Broccoli requires very heavy manuring. Because it removes large quantities of major nutrients from the soil. Manuring practices differ in different regions. It should be done as per the following manner
(a) F.Y.M. or Compost: 25 to 30 tonnes per hectare. It should be applied during field preparation and mixed well with the soil.
(b) Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium @ 100-150 kg, 60-80 kg and 80 kg/ acre respectively. All quantities of Phosphatic and Potassium fertilizers and half of the nitrogenous fertilizers should be applied 5-7.5 cm deep on both sides of the line just before transplanting. The remaining half of nitrogenous fertilizers are applied as a top dressing.
Intercultural operation in Sprouting Broccoli
It is a shallow-rooted crop. Shallow frequent cultivation should be given to kill weeds and provide soil mulch. Weeding should be started as soon as plants are set in the field. The plant should be earthed up about four to live weeks after transplanting. It is a delicious crop, requires good care. Like…
(1) The soil should be good and well manured.
(ii) Seedlings should not be kept too long in the nursery bed
(iii) Weeds should be controlled properly.
(iv) Regular and timely irrigation should be provided
(v) The only good quality seed of proper variety should be used.
Hand weeding is uneconomical, laborious, and tedious. But the use of herbicides is more economical to control the weed. One day before transplanting of seedlings, the application of Pendimethalin (0.56 kg a.i./ha in 600-750 litres of water) followed by a hand weeding 40-60 days after transplanting effectively checks the weed population
Irrigation in Sprouting Broccoli
It needs very heavy irrigation. Irrigation should be given twice a week to early crops and once a week to late crops. At the time of head formation, the crop should be watered frequently. Irrigation at seven to ten days interval between December and January is highly recommended
Irrigation at the wrong time may cause problems like head rot of Sprouting Broccoli. Sprinkler, big gun, furrow, and drip irrigation are used in Sprouting Broccoli
Disease and Pest of Sprouting Broccoli
Diseases of Sprouting Broccoli;
Damping-off; Damping-off is one of the serious disease in the Spouting Broccoli nursery. The affected seedlings droop and fall off due to sevivor infection around the collar region.
Control ; Apply the seed treatment with Thiram or Captan@ 2.5-3 g/kg of seed is highly recommended. The seedlings of Spouting Broccoli should be properly treated with Bavistin@ Ig/I or Dithane- M – 45 @ 2g/l of water.
Downy Mildew ; This disease can be seen from the nursery to the curd formation stages of the plant. Fine Hair like downy growth of the fungus can be seen on the leaves. In addition to the downy fungal growth, minute pinhead brown necrotic spots can also be seen on the upper surface of leaves.
Control; This disease can be controlled by avoiding the dense sowing of seeds in the nursery , Apply the foliar spray of Mancozeb@ 0.25% at the time of disease infestation stage and it should be repeated at 7 – 8 days interval.
White rust: The White rust is a soil-borne disease caused by the fungus Sclerotinia Scelorotiorum. This fungus mainly attacks on the bases of the outer leaves and results in suddenly wilting of the plant.
Control ; To control this disease, the soil must be drenched properly with Bavistin@ Ig/liter of water. Seedlings should be thoroughly dipped in 0.25 % Benlate suspension for 5-8 minutes before transplanting of the. Deep ploughings is highly recommended for its control,as the fungus cannot survive depth below the 15cm.
Black rot: The primary symptoms of this disease often appears along the margins of leaves as chlorotic regions and the chlorosis occurs in the direction of the midrib forming a V-shaped area. Symptoms of black rot start appearing from any side and center of the leaves. This is an bacteria are transmitted disease and it passes through seeds.
Black- leg; This disease mosltly occurs in moist regions, especially in areas under high rainfall during the vegetative growth period.
Control; Treat the seeds with hot water at 50 degree celsious for 30 minutes or mercuric chloride @ Ig/1 for 30 seconds.
Pest of Sprouting Broccoli;
Cutworms; The caterpillars of cutworms are 3 to 4 cm long, gray or brown to almost black with several markings. They hide during the daytime and starts feeding during the nights. These caterpillars causes the damage to seedlings by biting and by cutting down the foliage just above the ground level.
Control; 1. Collect and destroy the larvae at the early stage of the crop. 2. By sowing of paired rows of mustard after every 25 rows of the crop. 3. Spraying of the heavily infested crop with Rogor or Endosulfan@ 2 -3 ml/l of water.
Leaf Webber: Due to attack of leaf wbber leaves gets skeletonized by the larvae, which remain on the undersurface of leaves in webs and feed on them. Leaf webber also attack flower buds and pods. This insect commonly sucks early sown crops.
Control: 1. Collect and destroy the larvae at the early stage of the crop growth . 2. The crop should be sprayed with Cyfluthrin@ 0.5ml/1 of water.
Aphids; Aphids feed on the plants affecting the quality. Sowing of mustard alond with main crop can be act as a trap crop for aphids.
Control; Neem seed kernel extract can be applied @ 4% or Oxydemeton methyl @ 0.02% can also be sprayed for controlling Aphids.
Mustard sawfly; The larvae of mustard sawfly feed on leaves and it can be controlled by spraying Chlorpyriphos or Quinalphos@ 0.05%.
Harvesting and yield of Sprouting Broccoli;
The sprouting Broccoli should be harvested shortly before the bud began to open and heads remain compact.
The crop is ready for harvesting after 80-90 days of transplanting. Heads having 10- 15 cm stems and green, compact bud clusters are harvested with a sharp knife. On average, the yield varies from 45-50 q/Acre depending upon the variety.