Cultivation of Cluster Beans (Guar ) in India ; A complete Information Guide

Cultivation of Cluster Beans (Guar) in India; A complete Information Guide 

Cluster Bean or Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonaloba L. Taub. ) Belong to family Leguminosae. Cluster bean is grown for green vegetables and dry seeds, and also as a forage crop and green manuring crop. Some of its varieties are used for the extraction of gum.  It is cultivated in many parts of India. Major growing states are Rajasthan, Gujrat, Haryana, and Utter Pradesh. Rajasthan is the main state in terms of area and production.  

its origin is not certain. However, it is supposed that it has originated either from India or from Africa.

The utility of  Cluster Beans( Guar) ;

a) Green pods used as a vegetable.
b) Source of green nutrient fodder to the animals.
c) It enhances soil fertility through nitrogen fixation (6-8 kg N/acre/year).
d) Seeds of cluster beans contain 30-33% gum in  
    the endosperm.
e) Guar gum is used in many food items like in ice creams, 
     baked and dairy products.
f) Guar Gum is also utilized in the industry like; Cosmetic,  
    Pharmaceuticals, mining, textile, paper, oil drilling, 
    explosive, etc 

Nutritive value of Cluster Beans(Guar);

The nutritive value of cluster bean is given below; 






82.5 %


1.4  %


3.7  %




0.2 %


0.13 %


2.3 %




9.9  %

Vitamin A



1.4   %

Vitamin C

49 mg


ClimatIc Requirement for Cultivation of Cluster Beans;

Cluster bean is essentially a warm-season crop and grows well in summer as well in rainy season crop. It is a very hardy crop and relatively resistant to drought. The suitable temperature for its germination 30-35 degree Celsius 

Soil and its preparation for Cluster Bean Cultivation;

Cluster beans can be grown in all types of soil. But well-drained sandy loam soil of pH range 7-8.5  is best suited for it
Heavy Loam and waterlogged soil are not suitable for its cultivation The land should be well prepared by repeated ploughings after the Rabi harvesting followed by planking of the field. 

Varieties of Cluster Beans; 

(a) Local varieties. Pusa Mausumi (suitable for growing only as a rainy season crop) Pusa Sadabahar and Pusa Naubahar (suitable for sowing as a summer crop and rainy season crop) etc.
(b) Improved varieties. P. 28-1-1 (suitable for summer and rainy season). 1.C.-11704, I.C.-11388 (Grown in Kharif season only) and PL 850, etc.

Improved Varieties 

For seeds and Gum- HG-365, HG-563, RCG- 1066, RCG- 1003 
For vegetables- Durga Bahaar, Pusa Navbahaar, Pusa Sadabahar 
For Fodder- HFG-119, HFG- 156

Sowing of seeds in Cluster Beans Cultivation; 

(a) Time of sowing. Early crop is sown from February to March and the main crop is sown with the advent of monsoon, at the end of June or at the beginning of July. In certain areas, sowing is extended to September-October.
(b) Seed rate. The seed rate is 6.0 kg per acre.
(c) Seed Treatment To prevent crop from soil-borne disease seed can be treated with 2 gms Thiram and 1 gms Carbendazim /kg seed. Seeds can be treated 2-3 days before sowing. After fungicide seed treatment the seed is inoculated with suitable Rhizobium culture @ 600g / 12-15 kg seed.

(d) Method of sowing. 

Cluster bean may be cultivated as a pure cr mixed crop and border crop around the main crop. The seeds may be brown cast in some places. It may also be dibbled behind the plough or drilled in a row. The crop may be sown in lines at 45 to 60 cm, row to row, and 22 to 30 cm within the row spacing of 60 x 20 cm for maximum yields.

Manuring in Cluster Bean Cultivation ;

Being a leguminous crop, it does not require much manuring and is generally grown on residual fertility of the soil Recommended fertilizer schedule are 4000 to 6000 kg of F.Y.M. incorporated at the time of field preparation and 4 to 8 kg Nitrogen, 24 kg Phosphoric acid, and 24 kg Potassium per acre, applied before sowing.

Irrigation should be given in early sown cluster bean whenever it is necessary. There is no need for irrigation for rainy season crop. 

Weed Management in Cluster Bean Cultivation;

In cluster bean, two manual weedings should be done at the interval of 20-25 and 40-45 days after sowing are sufficient to keep the crop weed-free. But, under some circumstances,  like unavailability of labor under such conditions, chemical weed control can be done by application of Pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ha a.i. as pre-emergence herbicide and for post-emergence application Imazehtapyr 40g/ha a.i. in 600 liters of water is applied at 20-25 DAS is suitable for weed control. Wheel hoe and Hand Hoe should be used for Inter Culture operation to reduce the expenditure. Flat Fan Nozzle should be used for  the weedicide spray 

Disease and Pest in  Cluster Bean cultivation ;
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Harvesting of Cluster Beans;

The green pods for vegetable purposes are harvested from the plant by twisting or by cutting when they attain the marketable stage. Harvesting or picking of green pods is continued over a considerably long time because they continue arising as the plant grows. 

The yield of green pods varies from 20 to 30 quintals per acre. If it is grown for green fodder its yield varies from 60 to 80 qt/acre. The grain yield varies from 3 to 5 quintals per acre

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