Pests and Diseases of Legume Vegetables

 Pests and Diseases of Legume Vegetables

Pest of the Legume Vegetable ;
1. Aphids ( Aphis craceivora)
It is the most destructive pest of legumes vegetable. These are very small insects and infest the leaves, stem, and pods and suck the cell sap. In case of severe infestation, the infested parts dry up and there may not be any pod formation.
Control Measures
This insect can be controlled by spraying the crop with Dimethoate (Roger 30 EC) or Oxidomiton Methyl (Metasysłox-25 EC) or Methyl Paralhion (Mctacid D0 EC) @ 1 ml or Phosphomidon (Demicron-100 EC) @ 0.5 ml per liter of water when the infestation is noticed.
2. Pea pod borer ( Etiella zinekenella.)
Leaf Pod Borer
 The insect bore into the pods and feed on the grains inside.
Control Measures
Spraying the crop with Fenthion 0.05 percent and Phosphomidan 0.03 percent can control this pest 
 3. Leaf Miner : ( Phytomyza atricornis.)

It is a common pest of a pea. Maggots of this pest make shinning white zigzag galleries on leaves which appear as a result of their feeding between the two layers of the leaves. Such leaves wither and dry up. The growth of such plants is retarded and the yield of crops is affected.
Control Measure;
Spraying organophosphate insecticides like Phosphomidon and dimethoate were most effective  Foliar spray of Lindane at one percent at the start of flowering and once again 10 days later gave effective control.

4. Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum.)
 The crop may become infested either in the field or in storage or in
both places. It lays eggs on the young pods and larvae bore the seeds where they complete their development.
Control Measures
This pest infects seeds in the store, and damages the quality both for consumption and sowing purposes. It can be controlled by fumigating the material under airtight condition with Phosphine gas available in the form of tablets, e.g., Celphos, Phosfume etc. It should be applied at the rate of 1-2 tablets per tonne of material or per cubic meter of space
5. Leaf eating caterpillar( Prodenia litura F.)

The caterpillar feeds on leaves generally during morning and evening and defoliates the plant
Control Measures

Spraying the crop with Endosulphan (Thiodane 35 EC) @ 2 ml per litre of water has been found effective in controlling this pest.
Diseases of Legume Vegetable;
1. Seedling Blight (Pythium Sp.)
Preemergence and post-emergence damping-off of seedlings occur and the fibrous root being infested.
Control Measures
The seeds should be treated with Cerasan or Arasan or Speragon @ 2.5 gm per kg of seed before sowing.
2. Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe polygoni De)

Small, white, circular powdery spots appear on the upper surface of leaves which gradually cover the entire leaves, stems, petiole, and pods. They increased gradually, resulting in the death of the leaves and fruits.
Control Measures
Dusting the crop with sulphur @ 11.25 kg per acre or spraying Wettable Sulphur @ 2 kg per acre, starting just on the appearance of the disease have been found effective in controlling this disease.

3. Downy mildew (Pernospora pisi)

Symptoms are downy growth on the lower surface of leaves which is white first, but later changes to violet and appears black in the advance stage. Brown lesions are formed on pods in case of severe infection.
Control Measures
This disease can effectively be controlled by spraying the crop with Oxychloride (Blitox, Phytolan, etc.) @ 5 gm per litre of water.
copper Oxychlo
4. Rust (Uromyces fabae or U. pisi)

Yellow spots appear on leaves, Petioles, and stem in the early stages. In heavily affected crops, the yield is also reduced.
Control Measures
Cultivation of disease-resistant varieties such as T-163 etc. and spraying, the crop with Wettable Sulphur @ 2 kg per acre at seven days interval have been found effective in controlling this disease.
5. Wilt (Fusarium oxysporium/F. pisi )

Symptoms are premature yellowing and withering of leaves and finally the drying of the entire plant. Plants may continue to wilt in patches in quick succession till the maturity period. The disease affected plants can easily be pulled out. The disease causes considerable damage when the crop is sown early and in light soil.
Control Measures 

1. Early sowing should be avoided in badly infested areas.
2. The seed should be treated with Cerasan @ 2.5 gm or Captan @ 2-3 gm per kg of seed.

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