Cultivation of Muskmelon in India; A full informational Guide

Cultivation of Muskmelon in India ; A full informational Guide

Muskmelon ( Cucumis melo. L. ) belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. Muskmelon is an important crop cultivated throughout India. It is used as a dessert fruit and also eaten alone. Very rarely it is used as a cooked vegetable in its green stage. 

It is a native of North-West India and from there it has spread to China in the cast and southern Europe in the west. However, it has originated from Persia and adjacent areas 

Nutritive Value of Musk Melon ;

Cultivation of Muskmelon in India ; A full informational Guide

The nutritive value of muskmelon in 100 gm of an edible portion is given below – 






92.8 gms


1.30 mg


0.6  gms


4.60 mg


0.1  gms


341 mg


0.6  gms


0.03 mg


0.5  gms


32.0 mg

Other carbohydrates

5.4  gms

Vitamin A

450 I.U.




0.11 mg


65 mg


0.08 mg


31 mg

Nicotinic acid

0.05 mg


20 mg

Vitamin c

32.0 mg

 Soil and climatic Requirement for muskmelon cultivation

The muskmelon thrives best and develops the highest flavor in a hot dry climate. Seed germinates best at temperatures 28 to 30-degree Celsius and grows well at temperatures 25 to 35-degree celsius.  High temperatures and sunshine produce melons high in sugar Though sweetness and fine flavor are hereditary characteristics, yet, they are greatly influenced by environmental conditions. It is highly susceptible to frost. It is grown as a summer crop.
Muskmelons are mainly grown on sand and sandy-loam soils on the river beds. But other types of soil are also favorable for its cultivation. The optimum soil pH is 6.0 to 6.7 The land is prepared thoroughly by repeated ploughings.

Sowing of  Muskmelon seeds;

(a) Time of sowing. The seeds may be sown from November to March in the plains and April-May in the hills. The seed is sown in November December in West Bengal. Bihar and South India. Transplanting of about a week old seedlings may also be done.

(b) Seed Treatment; Treat the seed with Trichoderma viride @ 4g or Pseudomonas fluroscens @ 10 g or carbendazim @ 2g/kg of seed
(c) Seed rate. The seed rate is 600 gm per acre.
(d) Method of Planting.  

Suggest four methods of muskmelon planting are as follows –
1. Shallow pit method
In this method, pits of 60 x 60 x 45 cm are dug at a distance of 1.5 to 2.5 meters. Each pit is filled with a mixture of soil and 4 to 5 kg of F.Y.M or compost, 30 to 40 gm Urea, 40 to 50 gm. Single Superphosphate and 80 to 100 gm of murate of Potash. After filling the pit circular basin are made and five to six seeds are sown per basin at 2 to 3 cm deep and covered with fine soil, FY.M. or compost.
2. Deep pit method
This method is followed in the case of river bed cultivation. Circular pits of 60 to 75 cm diameter and 10 to 1.5 m depth are dug at a distance of 1.5 to 2.5-meter distance both ways.
3. Ridge method The seeds are sown on the side of raised beds.
4. Mound beds; Seeds are sown on the mounds. The seed rate is 1.6 kg per acre.
The normal spacing is a row to row 300 cm and plant to plant 90 cm. The germination percent and the storage life of seeds can be improved by treating freshly extracted seeds with Trichoderma viiridi 4 grams or Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 grams or Carbendizim 2 grams/kg of watermelon seeds.

Varieties of Muskmelon ;

Hara Madhu;  It is a late-maturing variety. its fruits are larger in size and round in shape with an average weight of approximately one kg. The skin of this variety is a light yellow color. and the TSS contains is about 13% Hara Madhu is very sweet in taste. The flesh of this variety is of green color, thick and juicy. Seeds are of small size. Hara Madhu is resistant to powdery mildew. It gives an average yield of 50qtl/acre. 

Punjab Sunehri;·The  Maturity period of this variety is  12days earlier in comparison to Hara Madhu. its fruits are round in shape with a netted rind of light brown color. The average fruit weight of this variety is about 700-800gms, its TSS  content is about 11%. The flesh of the Punjab Sunheri variety is thick and orange in color. The keeping quality of this variety is very good. It is resistant to fruitfully attacked. The average yield of this variety is about 65qtl/acre.
Punjab Hybrid; It is an early maturing variety. The fruit of this is variety is round in shape having a light yellow color with netted skin. The flesh is thick, orange in color, juicy, and of excellent flavor. · TSS is up to 12% and an average weight of about 800gm. It is resistant to fruit fly and gives an average yield of 65qtl/acre.
MH-51; MH -51 variety is released in 2017. An average yield of this variety is  90 Q/acre. Its fruit is round and has stripes and is gauzed. It has12% sucrose content.

F1-RUBY-903: · The size of this variety is about 1.25-1.5 kg and it mature in·72-80 days from sowing. It has round fruit with thick netting, orange flesh, and good aroma, thick and very sweet flesh with a sugar content about -14.5 % to 15%. The shelf-life of this variety is long.
MH-27; It was released in the year 2015. It gives an average yield of 90 Q/acre. It contains about 12.5% sucrose content.
Arka Jeet; It is an improvement over a local (IIHR 103) collection from Lucknow. It has an angular stem with dark green lobed leaves. The fruits of this variety are small and the average weight of the fruits is about  350 gms. Fruits are round but flat at both ends and have dark green skin at an early stage of fruit development which turns into golden orange at the full stip stage. The flesh of this variety is white with a medium texture and excellent flavor with high TSS(13-16%), It is rich in vitamin C content (41.6 mg/100 g) The maturity period of this variety is  90 days with a yield potential of 14-15 t/ha.
Other Promising Varieties of Muskmelon; Arka Rajhans, MH 10, Pusa madhurima, Pusa-Sarbati, Pusa Madhuras, Durgapura Madhu, Pusa Sundari, Lucknow Safed, Hari Dhari Faizabadi, Kutana, Amritsari, Annamalai, etc.
Exotic Varieties; PMR -45, Jacuba, Campo, etc.

Manuring in Muskmelon;

40 kg Nitrogen, 20 kg Phosphoric acid, and 20 kg Potassium per acre are recommended for muskmelon farming. The suggested application of 1200 to 1400 kg of compost per acre followed by 30 to 32 kg Nitrogen, 20 kg Phosphoric acid, and 20 kg Potassium per acre for a good crop
By spraying boron al 50 and 75 ppm and manganese at 50 ppm 
a high yield of muskmelon can be Obtained

Intercultural Operation in Muskmelon;

Two to three shallow cultivation should be given to keep down the weeds during the early stages of growth. Thinning of plants is also done. 

Irrigation in muskmelon crop

 Irrigation should be given every week during the summer days at the time of maturity, irrigation should be given when it is necessary.  If the muskmelon crop is sown on river beds do not need any irrigation. For good  sweetness and flavor, irrigation should not be given 3-4 days before the harvesting 

Harvesting of Muskmelon;

Muskmelon fruits can be Picked in about 110 days depending upon variety and Agro-climatic conditions. The stage of maturity is generally judged by the change in the external color of the fruit, softening of the rind, and the development of the abscission layer. Please note that the stage at which the fruits are picked also affects the quality of fruits hence muskmelon should be picked in time.
The average yield is 5600 to 6500 kg per acre.
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