Cultivation of Lettuce in India; A Complete Information Guide

Cultivation of Lettuce in India;  A Complete Information Guide

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) an annual salad crop that belongs to the family Compositae. Lettuce is grown in many parts of India more commonly as a culinary vegetable but sometimes it is also grown for its stems and the seeds. Lettuce can also be seen in sandwiches, soups, and wraps food items It is rich in mineral matter and vitamins.  it is anodyne, sedative, diuretic, and expectorant. Its seeds are cooling, demulcent, and refrigerant, while its leaves are slightly hypotic and sedative. 
Lettuce is believed to have originated in Asia Minor, the Trans-Caucasus, Iran, and Turkistan and has been in cultivation in those regions since the 6th Century B.C. 

Nutritive Value of the Lettuce Crop;

The nutritive value of lettuce in 100 gm of the edible portion is given below : 






94 g

Vitamin C

 8 mg


2.8 g

Malic Acid

170 mg


0.6 g


140 mg


0.2 g


0,5 mg


1.3 g


25 mg




12 mg

Vitamin A

540 IU


39.74 mg

10 Health Benefits of Lettuce;


1)  The Calories in Lettuce are Low and almost have no fat.
2)   Lettuce have high in Fiber and Cellulose.
3)   Lettuce is beneficial for a healthy heart.
4)   It has health beneficial omega-3 fatty acids,
5)   Lettuce is a complete protein supplement.
6)   Lettuce helps with Insomnia
7)   Lettuce is Alkaline Forming 
8)   Whole live food
9)    Lattuce have a low glycemic index
10)  Over all Lettuce have a great tastes .

Required Climatic Condition for Lettuce Crop ;

Lettuce is an annual cool-season crop. It does well in the cool growing season with a monthly average temperature of 12°C to 15°C. Its leaves become tough and bitter in hot dry weather. 

Soil and its Preparation for Lettuce Cultivation ;

Loam soil rich in organic matter is best suited for a lettuce crop. The optimum soil pH is 5.8 to 6.6. The soil should be prepared thoroughly. 

Important Varieties of Lettuce Crop ;

The most commonly cultivated varieties of lettuce have been classified into 4 types ;


Butter Head or Head Lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata)






Butterhead lettuces have very soft, buttery-textured leaves that form very loose “heads”. They boast a mild, sweet, and succulent flavor. Heads are loosely folded and have various range of color from pale green to purple-red. The unique textures and colors of  Butterhead Lettuce varieties are highly prized by gourmet cooks.

Leafy lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispy)


Leaf lettuce is in three types: red, green, and oak. Leafy lettuce does not have a “head”  because the leaves originate from a single stalk. Due to this reason, leaf lettuce is generally more perishable than head varieties. You’ll often see it in “baby lettuce,” mesclun, and spring mixes because of its tenderness. The red leaf has a burgundy tint and mild flavor, similar to that of green leaf, while the oak leaf is spicier and nuttier. To avoid instant wilting, postpone dressing leaf lettuce until just before serving.

Cos or Romanian lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia)


Romanian lettuce has long, slightly bitter leaves and sturdy, sweeter centers, it provides a sharp robust crunch to any meal. 

When it is grown to maturity, the upper tips of the leaves close to form a heart and it consequentially excludes light, coloring the internals to more of a blonde green. It is these paler leaves that are most tasty, tender, and are most desirable.

Celtuce or stem lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. aspergina).




Celtuce is also known as stem lettuce, celery lettuce, asparagus lettuce, or Chinese lettuce, It is a variety of lettuce that is grown primarily for its thick stem as well as its leaves. It is used as a vegetable and is very popular in  China and Taiwan, where the stem is interchangeably called wosun or qingsun

Some other Commercial varieties of lettuce are ;
Chinese yellow, Slobolt, French Breakfast, Great Lakes, Iceberg, Dark green, Celtuce, white Boston, May-King, Imperial;-847, Parish white, etc.

Sowing of Seeds for Lettuce Cultivation ;

(a) Sowing time of Lettuce. 

The seed of leaf-type lettuce is sown directly in the field in August September in rows 15 to 20 cm apart. The nursery sowing is done in September October and transplanted when the seedlings are 5 to 6 weeks old. The seeds are sown from February to June in the hills.
(b) Seed rate. The seed rate is 400 gm per acre. 

Manuring in Lettuce crop;

The manurial schedule is 20 to 25 Cartloads of Compost or F.Y.M, 50 kg urea, 30 kg Superphosphate and 30 kg Muriate of Potash per acre and these should be applied with the last preparatory tillage. 30 kg urea is applied as a top dressing after two weeks of sowing.

Intercultural Operation in lettuce ;

Weeding and hoeing are done to keep down the weeds during the early stages of growth.  As we know that the roots of lettuce crops are very shallow, hence the weeding should be accomplished very carefully without distributing lettuce. Usually weeding. After 15 days or according to need.

Irrigation Requirement for Lettuce Crop’

Irrigation should be given as and when is needed to maintain uniform soil moisture conditions in the soil.

Harvesting of lettuce Crop ;

Harvesting of lettuce should be accomplished as soon as plants acquire the acceptable size and firmness and harvesting should be done well before the leaves become tough and bitter and as well before seed stalks start to bold.
Usually, The leaves harvested when they are young and tender. First harvesting is done 35 days after sowing.
The yield of Lettuce crop;
The average yield is 12-16 quintals per acre.
Further, Read;

Cultivation of Celery in India

Cultivation of Stevia rebaudiana

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