Cultivation of Potato in India; A full Information Guide

Cultivation of Potato in India ; A full Information Guide

Cultivation of Potato in India; A full Information Guide

Potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) belongs to the family Solanaceae. Potato is one of the most important crop of the world. In India, it is used as a vegetable alone or mixed with other vegetables such as brinjal, cabbage, cauliflower, peas, tomato, beans. spinach etc. It is utilized to make chips and then used after frying. The present consumption of potato is 6 kg per annum as against 50 to 175 kg in Europe and America.
“Potato belongs to genus solanum which contains 2000 species of plant. About 100 of these bears tubers and many tuberous species grow wild in nature in the high land of Central and South America. The potato was introduced into India in the early 17th Century only about 40 years after its first introduction in Europe.

Nutritive Value of Potato ;

Cultivation of Potato in India ; A full Information Guide

The nutritive value of potato (per 100 gm of edible matter) is given below;






74.7 g


0.2 g


1.6  g


37 g


0.1 g


3.6 g


 0.6 g

Oxalic acid

20 mg


0.4 g

Vitamin A

40 IU


22.6 g


0.10 mg


10 g


0.01 mg


40 g

Nicotinic acid

1.2 mg


0.7 g

Vitamin C

17 mg


11 g







 Food value of potato in relation to cereals (kg/ha).

























Source:  C.P.R.I. Simla. 

Climatic Requirement for Potato Cultivation ;

The potato is a crop of temperate climate and thrives well in a cool climate. However in the Northern hills of India, it is grown as a summer crop Tuberization is best at soil temperation of 64°F (17.7°C) Low temperature, high light intensity, and short days are conductive for early initiation of tuberization and its subsequent development. It grows best under long-day conditions. In a short day and warmer temperature, flowering in potatoes is restricted and sometimes completely suppressed. 

Soil & its preparation for Potato Cultivation ;

Potatoes can grow in a wide range of soils except for saline and alkaline soils. Sandy loam and loamy soils, rich in organic matter are the most suitable for potato cultivation. Heavy and wet soils are not suited for potatoes. Soil structure and texture has a marked effect on the quality of the tuber. Light soil is preferred because they tend to promote more uniform soil temperatures and make harvesting of the crop easier The soil should be loose and friable with good drainage and aeration. The soil with a pH of around 6.0 to 8.0 is considered to be best for potato cultivation. Slightly acid soils (pH 4.8 – 5.4) are preferable for potato cultivation especially for areas where scab discase is prevalent.
Potato needs a well-pulverized seedbed for tuber production. The soil is! brought to a fine tilth by giving 8-9 ploughing followed by planking after each ploughing. The process of planking levels the land breaks the clods. loosen and collect the weeds and compresses the soil slightly. 

Important Varieties of Potato;

There are many varieties of potatoes either introduced into or breed in India. viz.
(1) Early varieties (Duration: 75-100 days):
White. Kufri Chandramukhi, Kufri Alankar, Kufri Lauvkar, Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Muthu, Up-to-date, Kufri Khasi-Garo, Kufri Badshah,

 Great Scort, Kufri Moti etc.

Red: Darjeeling Red Round (D.R.R.) etc. 

(ii) Midseason varieties (Duration: 100-130 days):
White: Kufri Chamatkar, Kufri Sakti, Kufri Kundan, Kufri Sheetman, Kufri Kuber, President, Kufri Bahar, Kufri Nilmani etc.Red: Kufri Red ctc. 
(iii) Late varieties (Duration: 130-135 days):
White: Kufri Jeevan, Kufri Safed, Kufri Naveen, Kufri Kumar, Kufri Dewa, Kufri Kisan, Kufri Neela, Kufri Neelmani ctc.
Red: Kufri Sinduri, Pimpernal ctc.
Early varieties can be cultivated in Mid and late season and vice versa. 
Other Promising varieties of Potato;
Kufri Navtal (G-2524), Kufri Navjot (SLBIZ-405), Kufri Sherpa, kuri Himalini, Kufri Lalima, F-3997, F-3977, F-5242, SLB/Z-434, F-5134, F. 3349, F-3797, C-990, C-3801, SLB/9-192 etc.

Planting of Potato

(a) Sowing time The potato crop is grown in different periods in different parts of India, depending upon the ecological condition. viz.




Planting Time

Harvesting Time

Northern High Hills

J &K, Himachal


Mar -April


Northern Med – Hills

Uttaranchal, Assam, Arunachal


Feb – Mar

Aug – Sep

Southern Hills

Nilgiri Hills




Mar – April

Aug – Sep

Jan – Feb

Aug –Sep

Dec – Jan

Mar – June

North –West Plains

Punjab, Haryana

Delhi, Raj (N-E), West Bengal



Dec- Feb

North- Eastern Plains

East UP,Bihar , WB, Assam,Meghalaya, Tripura


Oct – Nov

Feb – Mar

Central Plains

MP, Odisha, and Gujrat


Oct – Nov

Feb- Mar

Deccan Plateau

Maharashtra, AP, Karnataka

Kharif ,


June – July

Oct – Nov


Feb – Mar

(b) Selection of seeds Potato is propagated from tubers which are commonly spoken of as seeds. A pure and healthy seed is the basic requirement for a good crop. Tubers have planted either whole or cut into pieces. The seed is the costliest item in the total cost of production and it also affects the yield of the crop. The following points must be taken into account at the time of selection of tubers for seed.

(i) Seed tubers must be uniform in shape and size. 

(ii) Seed tubers must be free from any surface born diseases like scabs, warts, nematode infection,s or effect of rot caused by fungi and bacteria. 
(iii) Seed tubes must be 40-50 mm in diameter and 40-50 gm in weight. Small size tubers produce virus-infected plants.
(iv) The seed tubers should be in their right stage of sprouting and the sprouts should be about one cm. long at the time of sowing. 
(v) The seed tubers should not be shriveled. 
(vi) “The seed tubers should be true to the type. 
(vii) Certified seed should be preferred.
(c) Dormancy of seed potatoes and breaking of dormancy The time taken from harvest to the initiation of sprouting is termed dormancy. Immediately after harvest, tubers have a rest period or dormant period during which they will not sprout even through placed under suitable conditions. The period of dormancy varies from variety to variety and is influenced by several other factors. Denny (1926) shortened the rest period of potatoes by treating them with ethylene chlorohydrin, thiourea, or potassium thiocynate. It consist of dip treatment with 3 percent ethylene chlorohydrine or its vapour in air tight container for 48 hours followed by dipping in a solution made from Thiourea @ 10 gm, Gibbclic acid @ 1 mg, and Dithane M-45 @ 5 gm per liter of water for one hour.
(d) Seed treatment Cut pieces should be cured to encourage rapid suberization and wound periderm formation on the cul surface. The wound periderm protects the seed pieces from drying after planting and is also protect them against rot organism which may be present in the soil. The seed pieces should be treated with Amisan-6 or Agallol-6 or Bagallol-6 or Aretan6 or Dithane-M-45 @ 2.5 gm per liter of water before planting to protect them from infection by soil-borne diseases. The period for dipping in solution may be from 20 to 30 minutes.
(e) Seed rate The seed rate varies from 6-8 quintal per acre according to the size of seed and method of planting,

(f) Method of Potato planting

 There are four popular methods of planting potato in India
(i) Flatbed planting: In this method, tubers are planted on a flat surface in shallow furrows, and ridges are made by spade after germination and when the plants attain a height of 10-12 cm. Later on, two earthings up are done at 25-30 days and 40-45 days after plantings of seed tubers.
(ii) Planting in furrows In this system, small furrows are made by spade or small plough, and seed tubers are planted on the furrow at a suitable distance. Immediately after planting, the tubers are covered with soil with the help of hand or spade. Later on two earthing up are done.
(iii) Planting on ridges In this system, ridges are made at a suitable distance with the help of spades, and tubers are planted on the ridges. The tubers of rainy season crop are planted in ridges to avoid waterlogging.
(iv) Pit method In this system, the soil at a suitable distance is loosened by the spade and then pits are made by hand. The tubers are planted in the pits and then the pits are covered with soil by hand.

Spacing Requirement in Potato Crop;

Cultivation of Potato in India ; A full Information Guide

1)The spacing between row to row and plant to plant depends on the natural fertility of the soil and the variety to be grown. 
50 cm (row to row) x 20 cm (Plant to plant) as optimum spacing. 
2)In the case of the Kufri Jyoti variety, the spacing between row to row and plant to plant should be 45 x 12.5 cm. 
4)The seed tubers are planted at 3.75 cm deep. The depth of planting is determined by various factors:
(i) Character of the soil. 
(ii) Season of planting. 
(iii) Cultural practices and climatic condition that is likely to prevail during the growing season.

Manuring In Poatao Crop;

1) Apply 1200 kg of FYM per acre. 
2) Application of 40-50 kg nitrogen,40- 60 kg phosphorus, and 40 – 50 kg potassium per acre is sufficient for the potato crops.
3) Apply Magnesium sulphate at 60 kg/ha as a basal dose.
All quantities of phosphorus and potassium and two-third of nitrogen should be applied with the last preparatory tillage and the rest of the nitrogen should be applied as a top dressing when plants attain about 10 to 15 cm height.
4) Potato crop needs micronutrients in addition to major nutrients and the number of micronutrient salts recommended for potato production

Intercultural operation in Potato Crop;

1)The main objective of intercultural is to destroy weeds, keep the soil loose and cover the tubers with soil. 

2)The plant should be earthen up for the first time when they are about 15 to 25 cm high.
 3)A second earthing up may also be required to cover the tubers properly.
4)Application of herbicides such as Tok E-25 @ 2 litrc/ha. Simazine @ 0.5 kg/ha, Lasso @ 2 litre/ha and Eptam @ 2 litre/ha as pre-emergence and stam F-34 @ 2 litre/ha., gramaxone @ 4 litre/ha. as post emergence can effectively control the weeds, in autumn crop in plains and summer crops of hills. 
5)Simazine should not be used as weedicides if the wheat crop is to follow the potato. Because simazine adversely affects the germination of wheat crops. 

Irrigation in Potato Crop ;

1) Potato requires 25-26 acre inch of water which should be well spread throughout the growing period.

2) It requires frequent and light irrigation. First irrigation should be light and given 4-7 days after planting. The subsequent irrigation should be given at an interval of 5-7 days in September October, 7-10 days in November, 10-15 days in December, and 5-7 days in February-March and onward. 
Irrigation maybe moderates to heavy, but the ridges should never be submerged.
3) Normally, the soil must be kept moist but not too wet. Critical period of irrigation was observed at the stolon elongation stage i.e. from 20 to 40 days. 
4) The irrigation should be stopped about a week before harvesting. In hills, it is necessary to give supplemental irrigation in a dry period from April to June.

 Control of Major Disease and Pest of Potato;

Control  of Potato Diseases ;



Late blight

a) Remove ground creepers which serve as a source of infection. b) Spray Mancozeb 2 g/lit or Chlorothalonil 2 g/lit on 45, 60, and 75 days after planting.  c) Grow late blight resistant varieties like Kufri Jyothi, Kufri Malar and Kufri Thangam.

Brown rot

a)Select brown rot disease-free tubers. b) Give proper drainage facilities.  c) Remove and destroy the affected plants.

Early blight

Early blight can be controlled by spraying Mancozeb 2 g/lit or Chlorothalonil 2 g/lit at 45, 60 and 75 days after planting.

Virus diseases

Use virus free potato seeds. Rogue the virus affected plants regularly.  Control the aphid vectors by spraying Dimethoate or Methyl demeton 2 ml/ha.

Control of Major Pest of Potato;




a) Growing potatoes year after year in the same field should be avoided.  b)Follow rotation with vegetables and green manure. c)   Apply  Carbofuran 3 G (1.0 kg a.i.) 33 kg/ha in furrows while seeding. d) For cyst nematode-resistant variety Kufri Swarna, a half dose of the above-mentioned nematicide.


It can be controlled by the application of Methyl demeton 25 EC or Dimethoate 30 EC 2 ml/lit.

Cut worms

a) Install light trap during summer to attract adult moths.

b) Install sprinkler irrigation system and irrigate the field in day time to expose the larvae for predation by birds.

c) Drench the collar region of the plants in evening hours with Chlorpyriphos or Quinalphos 2 ml/lit a day after planting.

White grub

a) Summer ploughing to expose the pupae and adults.

Dust Quinalphos 5 D at 25 kg/ha 10 days after first summer rains.

b) Install light traps between 7 p.m. and 9 p.m. in April – May months.

c) Hand pick the adult beetles in the morning.

d) Hand pick the 3rd instar grub during July – August. 

e) In endemic areas apply Phorate 10 G at 25 kg/ha during autumn season (August – October).

Potato tuber moth

a) Avoid shallow planting of tubers.  Plant the tubers to a depth at 10 – 15 cm deep.

b) Install pheromone traps at 20 No/ha.

c) Earth up at 60 days after planting to avoid potato tuber moth egg-laying in the exposed tubers.

d)To control foliar damage spray NSKE 5 % or Quinalphos 20 EC 2 ml/lit (ETL 5 % leaf damage).

e)Keep pheromone traps in godowns.

f) In godowns cover the upper surface of potato leaves with Lantana or Eupatorium branches to repel ovipositing moths.

g) Treat the seed tubers with Quinalphos dust @ 1 kg/100 kg of tubers.

 Harvesting of Potato Crop;

1)The harvesting time is determined by the prevailing market price and crop to follow after potato.

2) Potatoes are sometimes harvested when the tubers are immature in order to get the higher prices in the market. 
3) Potato crops show signs of maturity in about three months after plating. The leaves turn yellow and are shed in course of time and haulms dry up and die which may be taken to be an indication of maturity. 
4)The harvesting is done with spade or country plough. The harvested tubers may be allowed to dry on the ground for sometime in the sun. Then the potatoes may be graded into 
(1) Seed size tubers, 
(ii) large size tubers and 
(iii) Chats. The seed size tubers are kept for seed and the last two can be sold as ware potatoes. 

Storage of Potato Crop;

Potato is a perishable commodity and has to be kept in proper storage to avoid rot. Potato is kept for a period of 5-6 months in a proper godown. Potatoes, in recent times, are stored in cold storage at 2.2°C to 3°3°C and 75-80 percent relative humidity. It is the best method of storing potatoes. 
Explore Further ;

4 thoughts on “Cultivation of Potato in India; A full Information Guide

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Verified by MonsterInsights