Cultivation of Soybean; A Complete Information Guide

Cultivation of Soybean ; A Complete Information Guide
Cultivation of Soybean; A Complete Information Guide

Soybean (Glycine max L. Merril) Belongs to the family Leguminosae. Soybean is an erect, and bushy annual plant. The plant varies from 0.5 to 2.0 meters in height. Soybeans are reported to have originated in eastern Asia or China. Soybean grain was reported to be one of five sacred grains of China. Soybean has been known to man for over 5000 years.
Although there is no available record as to when soybean was introduced into India, it has been traditionally grown in the northern hills and several other scattered pockets in the country for many centuries and has become an essential part of the daily diet in these regions. 

The important soybean-growing countries are U.S.A., China. Brazil, Mexico, and U.S.S.R. 
Production of soybean in India at the present time is restricted mainly to Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Gujarat. It is also grown on a small acreage in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, and Delhi. The area under soybean cultivation is around 113.339 lakh hectare. andThe total production of soybean crop for all India for the year 2018 is 114.832 lakh tonne

Important Districts for the soybean cultivation in India; 

Nutritive Value of Soybean ; 

Cultivation of Soybean ; A Complete Information Guide
Apart from the high yield potential, soybean possesses a very high nutritional value. It contains about 20 percent oil Nutrition profile of soybeans expressed per 100 g dry matter are as follows;






36.90 g






707 mg




4.8 mg


19.94 g




7.33 g

Vitamin B6

0.377 mg


8.54 g

Vitamin B12




Vitamin C

6.0 mg



Vitamin K



280 mg

Vitamin A


Apart from the high yield potential, soybean possesses a very high nutritional value. It contains about 20 percent oil and 40 % high-quality protein (as against 7.0 % in rice, 12 % in wheat, 10 % in maize, 20-25 % in other pulses). Soybean protein is rich in the valuable amino acid lycine (5%) in which most of the cereals are deficient. its sprouting grains contain a considerable amount of vitamin C. Vitamin A is present in the form of precursor carotene which is converted into vitamin A in the intestine. 

Uses of Soybean ;

1) A large number of Indian and western dishes such as bread, ‘chapati’, milk, sweets, pastries, etc., can be prepared with soybean. 
2)Wheat flour fortified with soybean flour makes good quality and more nutritious ‘chapati’. 
3)Soybean oil is used for manufacturing vanaspati ghee and several other industrial products. 
4)Soybean is used for making high protein food for children.
5)It is widely used in the industrial production of different antibiotics. 
6)Soybean builds up the soil fertility by fixing large amounts of atmospheric nitrogen through the root nodules, and also through leaf fall on the ground at maturity.
7)It can be used as fodder, forage can be made into hay, silage etc. Its forage and cake are excellent nutritive foods for livestock and poultry. 
8)Soybean being the richest, cheapest, and easiest source of best! quality proteins and fats and having a vast multiplicity of uses as food and industrial products are called a wonder crop.

Medicinal Importance of Soybean;

1. Helps relieve sleep disorders
2. Soybean may help manage diabetes
3. Help improve blood circulation
4. Essential for pregnancy
5. Soybean for healthy bones
6. Aids healthy digestion
7. It provides relief in menopausal symptoms
8. Improves heart health
9. It possesses anti-cancer properties
10. soybean aids in healthy weight management

Climatic Requirements for Soybean Cultivation;

1) Soybean grows well in a warm and moist climate. 

2) The climatic requirements for soybean are almost the same as for maize. A temperature of 26.5 to 30°C appears to be optimum for most of the varieties. 
3) Soil temperatures of 15.5°C or above favor rapid germination and vigorous seedling growth. The minimum temperature for effective growth is about 10°C. A lower temperature tends to delay the flowering. 
4) Day length is the key factor in most of the soybean varieties as they are short-day plants and are sensitive to photoperiods. Most of the varieties will flower and mature quickly if grown under condition where the day length is less than 14 hours provided that temperatures are also favorable.

Soil Requirement for Soybean Cultivation;

1) Well-drained and fertile loam soils with a pH between 6.0 and 7.5 are most suitable for the cultivation of soybean. 

2) Sodic and saline soils inhibit the germination of seeds.
3) In acidic soils, liming has to be done to raise the pH to about seven. 
4) Waterlogging is injurious to the crop.

Rotations and Mixed Cropping in Soybean Crop ;

1) Mixed cropping of soybean with maize, mandua, and sesamum has been found feasible and more remunerative.

2) In the mixed stand of maize and soybean, the yield of maize is not affected at the same time 10-12 quintals of soybean per hectare can be obtained. 
3) In mixed cropping of maize and soybean, plant maize at 100 cm row spacing keeping plant to plant distance 10 cm and three rows of soybean in between maize rows.
4) Soybean has a tremendous scope as an intercrop in arhar, cotton, and upland rice in northern India. 
5) In the southern part of the country, soybean has good scope as intercrop In sorghum, cotton, sugarcane, arhar, and groundnut. 
5) In central India, soybean has been found very remunerative on the fallow lands in Kharif. 
6) In low rainfall areas of Madhya Pradesh, it has been a common practice to keep the land fallow in Kharif to conserve moisture for a rainfed Rabi crop. 
7) It has been found that rainfed Rabi crops after Kharif fallow are generally low return crops. 
8) However, when soybean is grown in Kharif instead of keeping the land fallow, about 8-10 quintals of soybean per hectare can be obtained. This is more remunerative than the rainfed Rabi crops on Kharif fallows. And if the Kharif rains were substantial, a profitable Rabl crop could also be raised after Kharif soybean to yield a bonus.
Some of the common rotations followed in north India are as given below:
1. Soybean – wheat 
2. Soybean – potato 
3. Soybean – gram
4. Soybean – tobacco 
5. Soybean – potato – wheat

Field Preparation for Soybean Cultivation;

In general, the preparation of the land for soybean should be the same as it is for maize. It requires a good seedbed with a reasonable fine texture and not too many clods. 

Land should be well-leveled and be free from crop stubbles. One deep ploughing with mouldboard plough followed by two harrowings or two ploughings with local plough is sufficient. There should be optimum moisture in the field at the time of sowing.

Important Varieties of Soybean ;


Suitable Varieties


Andhra Pradesh

LSb-1, Pratikar (MAUS 61), Pooja (MAUS 2), MACS 450, Pant Soybean 1029, MACS 124, Monetta and Bragg


Arunachal Pradesh & Assam

Ahilya 1 (NRC 2), JS 80-21, Samrudhi (MAUS 71), Pratap Soya (RAUS 5), Bragg, Indira Soya 9



PK 416, Pusa 16, Pusa, 24, Pant Soybean 564, Pant Soybean 1024, Pant Soybean 1042, Bragg and SL 525



Ahilya 1 (NRC 2), Ahilya 3 (NRC 7), Ahilya 2 (NRC 12), Ahilya 4 (NRC 37), JS 71-05, JS 335, JS 80-21, JS 75-46, MACS 58, JS 9041, Indira Soya 9, JS 93-05, Kalitur, Parbhani Sona (MACS 47), Pratishta (MAUS 61-2), Monetta, Punjab-1, PK 472, Shakti (MAUS 81), Samrudhi (MAUS 71) and Pratap Soya (RAUS 5)



PK 416, Pusa 9712, Pant Soybean 564, Pant Soybean 1024, Pant Soybean 1042, Bragg and SL 525



Gujarat Soybean 1, Gujarat Soybean 2, JS 93-05, JS 335, JS 80-21, JS 75-46, MACS 58, Monetta, Parbhani Sona (MAUS 47), Pratishta (MAUS 61-2), Shakti (MAUS 81) and PK 472



Punjab-1, Pk 416, Pusa 16, Pant Soybean 564, Pant Soybean 1024, Pant Soybean 1042 and SL 525


Himachal Pradesh

VL Soya 2, VL Soya 47, Shilajeet, Shivalik, Bragg, Pusa 16, Hara Soya and Palam Soya



Birsa Soybean 1, Ahilya 1 (NRC 2), JS 80-21, Samrudhi (MAUS 71), Pratap Soya (RAUS 5) and Bragg



Hardee, Bragg, Sneh (KB 79), KHSb-2, Pratikar (MAUS 61), Pant Soybean 1029, MACS 124, MACS 450 and Pooja (MAUS 2))


Madhya Pradesh

Ahilya 1 (NRC 2), Ahilya 3 (NRC 7), Ahilya 2 (NRC 12), Ahilya 4 (NRC 37), JS 71-05, JS 335, JS 80-21, JS 75-46, MACS 58, JS 90-41, Indira Soy 9, JS 93-05, Kalitur, Parbhani Sona (MAUS 47), Pratishta (MAUS 61-2),Monetta, Punjab-1, PK 472 and Shakti (MAUS 81)


Vidharbha and Marathwada region of Maharashtra

Ahilya 1 (NRC 2), JS 335, JS 93-05, JS 80-21, MACS 58, Parbhani Sona (MAUS 47), Pratishta (MAUS 61-2), Shakti (MAUS 81), MACS 13, Monetta, Prasad (MAUS 32) PK 472, Shakti (MAUS 81), TAMS-38 and Phule Kalyani (DS-228)


Southern Maharashtra

MACS 124, MACS 450, Pant Soybean 1029, Pooja (MAUS 2), Pratikar (MAUS 61), Prasad (MAUS 32), MACS 13, Monetta and Phule Kalyani (DS-228)


Manipur, Meghalaya and Nagaland

Ahilya 1 (NRC 2), JS 80-21, Samrudhi (MAUS 71), Pratap Soya (RAUS 5), Bragg, Indira Soya 9



JS 80-21, Pusa 24, Indira Soya 9, Ahilya 1 (NRC 2), Ahilya 2 (NRC 12), Ahilya 3 (NRC 7), Ahilya 4 (NRC 37) and Pusa 16



PK 416, Pusa 16, Pant Soybean 564, Pant Soybean 1024, Pant Soybean 1042, SL 295, Bragg and SL 525



Pratap Soya (RAUS), Bragg, Punjab-1, PK 472, MACS 58, JS 80-21, JS 335, Ahilya 4 (NRC 37), Parbhani Sona (MAUS 47), JS 93-05, Pratishta (MAUS 61-2) and Shakti (MAUS 81)



NRC 2, JS 80-21, MAUS 124, MAUS 71, RAUS 5, Pusa 16, Bragg and Indira Soya 9


Tamil Nadu

Co 1, Co Soya 2, ADT-1, MACS 124, MACS, 450, Pooja (MAUS 2), Pratikar (MAUS 61) Hardee, Pant Soybean 1029, and Bragg


Tripura and West Bengal

Ahilya 1 (NRC 2), JS 80-21, Samrudhi (MAUS 71), Pratap Soya (RAUS 5), Bragg and Indira Soy 9


Uttar Pradesh

Pusa 16, Pant Soybean 1092, Pant Soybean 1042, Pant Soybean 1024, Pant soybean 564, PK 472, PK 472, PK 416, Pratishta (MAUS 61-2), JS 93-05, Ahilya 4 (NRC 37), JS 335, SL 525, PS 1241, PK 262 and PK 327



Hara Soya, Palam Soya, Punjab-1, Pusa 16, PS 1241, VL Soya 1, VL Soya 2, VL Soya 21, VL Soya 47, Shilajeet and Pant Soyavbean 1092

Cultivation of Soybean ; A Complete Information Guide

Seed and Sowing of Soybean Crop ;

1. Seed Treatment; To reduce the fungal attack the seed should be treated prior to sowing with fungicides like Thiram at the rate of 4.5 g per kg of seed.
2. Seed Inoculation;  For efficient biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, it is essential that soybean seeds should be inoculated with a suitable strain of Rhizobium japonicum. Peat-based ‘Rhizobium culture’ is best for this purpose. This should be used at the rate of 0.5 kg per 70 kg seed. Moist the seed with water and mix the culture uniformly in shade just before sowing. Always use fresh Rhizobium culture. In the case of the virgin field where soybean has not been grown earlier the rate of culture should be five to ten times more than the normal dose.
3. Time of sowing; As stated above most of the varieties of soybean are sensitive to photoperiod and require short-day conditions for flowering Time of planting is a very important consideration in soybean. 
In northern India soybean can be planted from the third week of June to first fortnight of July. But the first fortnight of July seems to be the best. June planting requires irrigation before sowing and also June planting takes a longer period to mature and is very much susceptible to yellow mosaic virus.
4.Method of sowing; The sowing should be done in lines 45 to 60 cm apart with the help of a seed drill or behind the plough. Plant to plant distance should be 4-5 cm. The depth of sowing should not be more than 3-4 cm under optimum moisture conditions. If the seed is placed deeper or there is crust formation just after sowing, the seed germination may be delayed and may result in a poor crop stand.
5. Seed Rate; The seed rate of soybean depends upon germination percentage, seed size, and sowing time. If the seed is of 80%  germination, 70-80 kg seed per hectare is required. For late planting and for a spring crop, the seed rate should be 100-120 kg per hectare.
Manures and Fertilisers requirement in Soybean Crop ;
1) For obtaining good yields of soybean apply 15-20 tonnes of farmyard manure or compost per hectare.
2) A good crop of soybean yielding about 30 quintals per hectare will remove about 300 kg nitrogen per hectare from the soil. But soybean being a legume crop has the ability to supply their own nitrogen needs provided they have been inoculated and there is efficient nodulation in the plant. 
3) An application of 20-30 kg nitrogen per hectare as a starter dose will be sufficient to meet the nitrogen requirement of the crop in the initial stage in low fertility soils having poor organic matter.
4) Soybean requires relatively large amounts of phosphorus than other crops. Phosphorus is taken up by soybean plants throughout the growing season. The period of great demand starts just before the pods begin to form and continues until about ten days before the seeds are fully developed. 
5) The soil should be tested for the availability status of phosphorus. In the absence of soil test apply 70-80 kg P2.05, per hectare to meet the requirement of the crop. With the application of phosphorus, the number and density of nodules are stimulated and the bacteria become more mobile.
6) Soybean also requires a relatively large amount of potassium than other crops. A crop of soybean yielding 30 quintals per hectare will remove about 100 kg potassium from the soil. The rate of potassium uptake climbs to a peak during the period of rapid vegetative growth, then slows down about the time the bean begins to form. The soil test is the best guide for the application of potash in the soil. In the absence of soil test apply 50-60 kg K,0 per hectare. The fertilisers should preferably be placed, at sowing time, about 5-7 centimetre away from the seed at a depth of 5-7 centimetre from the seed level.

Water Management in Soybean Crop;

During Kharif season, soybean crop generally does not require any irrigation. However, if there is a long spell of drought at the time of filling, irrigation would be desirable. During excessive rains, drainage is also equally important. Spring crop would require about two six irrigations.
Weed Control in Soybean Crop;
1) Soybean is very sensitive to early weed competition. Weed infestation in soybean field may reduce yield by 40-45 per cent depending upon the intensity, nature, and the duration of weed competition. 

2)The annual grasses like Echinochloa colonum (sama), Dactyloctenium aegypticum (makra), Eleusine indica (kodai), and Digistaria spp. are the major problems in soybean fields. Celosia argentia (safed murg) is the most important broad-leaved weed. Cyperus rotundus (motha) Cynodon dactylon (doob grass) and Sorghum halepanse (banchari) are important among perennial weeds.
3) To avoid competition during the early growth stages, the soybean field should be kept free of weeds for the first 30-40 days after sowing. 
4) The weeds that emerge 30-40 days after sowing are smothered by the crop. Mechanical as well as chemical methods are adopted for the control of weeds in the soybean field. The mechanical methods include the use of ‘Khurpi’, a spade. hand hoe etc. 
5) Two manual weedings 20 and 40-45 days after sowing are generally sufficient for control of weeds. Manual weeding accomplishes the job effectively, but it is a time-consuming job and on a large scale it becomes difficult to control the weeds in time. Another problem is that during the rainy season due to continuous rains weed control operation is not completed at the right time. Under such circumstances use of herbicides have been found very effective. Following herbicides can be used in soybean field:
(1) Nitrofen (Toke-25): It is used as a pre-emergence selective herbicide and is effective for controlling most of the annual grasses and broad-leaved weeds in soybean fields. The herbicide should be applied at the rate of 1.5-2.0 kg a.i. per hectare in 800-1000 liters of water before the emergence of weeds and the crop. Sufficient moisture in the upper soil surface 18 required for the activation of this herbicide.
(2) Fluchloralin (Basalin): It is a pre-plant incorporated type herbicide. It should be applied at the rate of 1 kg a.i. per hectare in 800-1000 litres of water after the final land preparation and before the sowing of soybean. Before planting, the herbicide should be well incorporated in a 3-4 cm upper layer of soil.
(3) Metribuzin (Sencor): This is a pre-emergence herbicide effective against annual grasses and broad-leaved weeds. It should be sprayed before the emergence of weeds

Diseases and Pest Management in Soybean;

a) Disease Management in Soybean Crop;

1) Seed and Seedling Rot 
Poor emergence due to the seed rotting fungi is a very common problem with soybean. The seed may rot soon after planting before it germinates. The seedlings may rot before or soon after emergence.
Control Measures; Seed treatment with Thiram at the rate of 4.5 g per kg of seed will control effectively these diseases.
2) Frog Eye Leaf Spot;
This disease appears in the field about two months after planting.  The leaf spot has a grey to light tan central area with a narrow reddish-brown margin. Heavily spotted leaves may fall prematurely.
Control Measures;(1) Use certified seed. (2) Use resistant varieties 3) Apply 
Seed treatment with thiram + carbendazim (2:1) @ 3g/kg seed.or Apply Mancozeb or copper fungicide at 2.5g/l or carbendazim 1 g/lit.

3) Pod Blight  Antharacnose;
The pods first become yellowish-green and soon dry out. Consequently, seed formation is seriously affected. The seeds in diseased pods may be shriveled and mouldy.
Control Measures (1) Spray Zineb at the rate of 2.5 kg per hectare in 1000 liters of water. (2) Plant resistant varieties like Bragg.3) Treat the seeds
 with Thiram or Captan or Carbendazim 3 g/kg and Use Mancozeb @ 2.5g/l as a spray or Carbendazim 1g/L.
4) Purple seed Stain;
It causes a purple coloration of the seed. The colored areas on diseased seeds vary from pink to dark purple. The germination of such seeds is very low. The seedlings that develop from diseased seeds may soon die.
Control Measures
(1) Use certified good quality seed.
(2) Seed treatment with fungicides like Thiram reduces the seedling losses.
5) Rust
The leaves show brownish pustules, covering almost the entire leaf surface. Loose brown powder, characteristic of rust may be present on the leaves. Leaves turn brown within a period of time.
Control Measures
(1) Grow-resistant varieties. (2) Spray Dithane M-45 or Difolitan at the rate of 2.5 kg per hectare in 1000 liters of water.
6) Bacterial pustule;
Small yellowish-green spots with reddish-brown centers are formed on the upper surface of the leaves. The central portion of the individual spot appears slightly raised. Small pustules are found on the underside of the leaves.
Control Measures
(1) Grow-resistant varieties. (2) Seed treatment with Vitavex (0.2%).
7) Yellow Mosaic;
This is the most damaging and widespread disease of soybean in India. The leaves show bright yellow, somewhat diffused patches which increase in size and then coalesce, making the leaf almost completely yellow. The newer leaves show yellow mosaic. The causal organism is a virus that is transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). The same virus affects many other pulse crops. Whitefly can breed on a large number of plants. If the plant is infected within 75 days after planting, the yield reductions are significant but infection after 75 days results in non-significant yield losses.
Control Measures
(1) Grow-resistant varieties. (2) Use of regular insecticidal sprays etc. Metasystox 25 EC at the rate of 1 kg per hectare in 1000 liters of water at 10 days intervals followed by roguing till the crop is 75 days old is recommended.
8) Ring Spot;
The stem tip bud turns brown, curves downward, and becomes dry and brittle. In early infection, plants remain stunted and die pre- maturely. The diseased condition can be seen during the flowering also. In case of seedling infection, the first trifoliate show chlorotic ring spots which diffuse and turn into yellow patches. The next leaf shows fine chlorotic flecking followed by rusty coloration.

b) Insect – Pests Management in Soybean;

1) Stem Fly;
It is a serious pest of soybean in the northern regions of India. Adults feed by making multiple punctures that appear as white spots on leaves. Eggs are laid in the soft tissues of the leaf and hatch in two to seven days. Larvae start feeding on the leaf and move towards the center of the stem, penetrating through the petiole. In two to three days maggots reach the stem and undergo three to four moults. When an infested stem is split open a distinct tunnel can be seen corresponding to the area eaten by the maggot. The infested plants show partly dried and drooping leaves.
Control Measures
1) Soil application of phorate 10 G @ 10 kg/ha or carbofuran 3 G @ 30 kg/ha at the time of sowing will prevent early infestation by stem fly. 2) One or two sprays of 0.03% dimethoate 30 EC or 0.05% quinalphos 25 EC can stop the damage.

2) Girdle Beetle;
It is another serious pest of soybean. This pest reduces 50 % pods and 50 % grains by infesting a soybean plant. The adult is a medium-sized cerambycid beetle. After mating, females make two parallel girdles usually on the petiole or on the main stem or side branches. Females may bore several holes between these girdles before inserting a single yellow egg inside the stem. Hatching occurs in three to eight days. The newly emerged larvae feed inside the stem. If a petiole is girdled, the trifoliate leaves begin drying around the edges, which results in the curling of the leaf margin. Finally, the entire leaflet dries up, and can be easily spotted in the field. This type of drying is restricted only to the girdled petiole.
Control Measures; 1) 
Avoid excess use of nitrogenous fertilizers. 2) Collect and destroy infested plant parts and egg masses. 3) Remove the infested plant parts at least once in 10 days and bury them in a compost pit to monitor and reduce the populations of girdle beetle 4) Apply phorate 10 G @ 10 kg/ha or carbofuran 3 G @ 30 kg/ha at the time of sowing.
5) One or two sprays of 0.03% dimethoate 30 EC or 0.05% quinalphos 25 EC or 0.05% methyl demeton 25 EC or 0.04% can check further damage. 6) Spray quinalphos 25 EC triazophos 40 EC @ 2 ml/lit. at the crop age of 30-35 days and repeal after 15-20 days (1000 l spray/ha)
  3) Bihar Hairy Caterpillar;
It is a serious pest of soybean. A single female may lay 1000-1500 eggs on the leaf surface. These pale greenish eggs hatch in three to seven days. Newly emerged caterpillars are gregarious feeders on the leaf epidermis, skeletonizing entire leaves.
Control Measures; 1) Spray
 chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 1.5 lit/ha or trizophos 40 EC @ 0.8 Lit/ha or quinalphos 25 EC @ 1.5 lit/ha. 2) Dust Chlorpyriphos 1.5% DP quinalphos 1.5% @ 25kg/ha when the population is likely to reach 10/m row length (ETL). Repeat it as needed.
4) Tobacco Caterpillar;
Females lay 1000-2000 eggs in batches. Eggs hatch in three to seven days. The newly emerged larvae have green bodies and blackheads. Young larvae feed gregariously. They feed on the epidermis, leaving the main veins and thus skeletonizing the leaves. Later instars feed voraciously on young and old leaves and can completely defoliate plants.
Control Measures
Same as for Bihar hairy caterpillar.
5) Semi Looper;
Adults are medium-sized moths with a metallic yellow patch in the fore wing. Eggs are laid singly on both sides of leaves. In three to four days, the pale greenish-white larvae emerge and feed singly on the soft tissues, leaving the veins. Fully developed larvae are green with distinct black and deep green longitudinal lines along the body. A severe infestation will leave the plant with only its main branches.
Control Measures
Spray crop either with phosphamidon @ of 250 ml/ha in 1000 liters of water or Endosulfan 35 EC at the rate of 1 liter per hectare dissolved in 800 liters of water.
6) Leaf Roller;
This insect occurs during the rainy season and has established itself as a major problem in Madhya Pradesh and the Tarai area of Uttar Pradesh. Females lay eggs either singly or in groups of 5-20 on the leaf surface. Eggs hatch in seven to eight days. The small white first instar larvae fold leaves around themselves as protection from natural enemies. They feed on the mesophyll resulting in an intact papery skeleton of folded leaves.
Control Measures
Spray Thiodan 35 EC at the rate of 1 liter per hectare in 1000 liters of water or Ekalux 25 EC at the rate of 1.25 liters per hectare in 1000 liters of water.
7) Leaf Miner
This is a specific pest of groundnut which has begun attacking soybean and is an important pest in Madhya Pradesh. Female moths lay white rectangular eggs on the lower leaf surface which hatch in two to four days. Newly hatched larvae mine into leaves and feed below the epidermis. They then spin cup-shaped cocoons by sticking adjacent leaves together. Larval damage is characterized by narrow tunnels between the layers of the epidermis. Heavily mined areas within a field appear crinkled and distorted.
Control Measures
Similar to those in the case of leaf rollers.
8) White Fly;
This is a serious pest of soybean in the Tarai, plains of the Uttar Pradesh, and Delhi regions. Adults are small, yellow-bodied insects with whitish-grey wings and are densely covered with waxy powder. Adults are known to transmit the yellow mosaic virus. Plants suffering from yellow mosaic virus disease have reduced pod formation and yield.
Control Measures
Spray a mixture of Malathion (0.1%) and Metasystox (0.1%) or a mixture of Thiodan (0.1%) and Metasystox (0.1%) on the 20th, 30th, 40th and 50th day after sowing.

Harvesting and Threshing of Soybean Crop;

When soybean plants mature they start dropping their leaves. The maturity period ranges from 1000 to 140 days depending on the varieties, When the plants reach maturity, the leaves turn yellow and drop, and soybean pods dry out quickly. There is a rapid loss of moisture from the seed. At harvest, the moisture content of the seeds should be 15%.
Harvesting can be done by hand, breaking the stalks on the ground level or with the sickle. Threshing can be done either with the mechanical soybean thresher or some conventional methods used in other legumes. Threshing should be done carefully and any kind of severe beating or trampling may damage the seed coat and thus reduce the seed quality and viability. Soybean can also be threshed by wheat thresher after a little modification. This would involve a change of sieve, reduction of the cylinder speed, and increase in fan speed. The moisture content of 13 to 14 % is ideal for threshing with a thresher.

The Yield Soybean Crop;

By adopting above mentioned improved technology, improved varieties of soybean yield 30-35 quintals of grain per hectare.

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