Cultivation of Tomato; Lycopersicum esculentum
1) Tomato crops can be grown in any season because of their day-neutral Characteristics.
2) Mostly three crops of tomato are taken in the northern plains, but due to the frost prevailing conditions in the northern plains, the rabi crop is not so fruitful.
3) The best time for tomato transplantation is the month of July for the Kharif crop, October – November month for the rabi crop, and February months for the Zaid crop.
4) As there is no danger of frost in southern plains, Tomato transplanting can be started in the month of December-January as a first crop, Second transplanting can be done in the month of June-July and the third transplanting can be done in the month of September-October As per the prevailing irrigation facilities.
1) Seedlings are grown for one month by transplanting raised beds of 60-100 cm width and of convenient length.
2) Soil solarization of nursery beds is done by covering them with white transparent polythene sheets for one month and it should be done in hot summer months. It will destroy the major disease-causing microorganisms like fungi, bacteria, and nematodes as well as simultaneously kill the insects and seeds of weeds.
3) For a one-meter square nursery area apply a dose of 5kg well-rotten FYM and a 20 g dose of each N, P, and K fertilizer, and for managing the disease and pest of the nursery apply the 2.5g carbofuran or 200 g of neem cake along with 10-25 g Trichoderma.
4) For nematodes apply the neem cake /castor cake/ neam leaf/ castor leaf/ Pongamia leaf/ calotropis leaf has to be incorporated @ 400 g per square meter at the time of preparing the nursery beds.
5) Mulch the seedbeds after sowing with green leaves and irrigation must be given with a rose regularly daily in the morning till the proper germination of seeds. Mulch must be removed immediately after germination of the seeds.
7) Protect the nursery bed from the damage of virus-transmitting insects with the help of a fine nylon net.
Seed treatment ;
1) To avoid damping-off disease treats the seed with Trichoderma @ 5-10 g/Kg seed or carbendazim 2g/Kg seed.
2) The treated seeds are dried in the shade for 30 minutes and then sown sparsely along the lines at ½ cm depth and then covered by the topsoil.
The transplanting is done in a small flatbed or in a shallow furrow depending upon the availability of irrigation.
In the Case of heavy soil, Plants are usually transplanted on the ridges, and during the rainy periods, ridge transplanting is also advantageous.
The seedling of the indeterminate varieties/hybrids must be staked by using bamboo sticks of about two-meter in length or may be planted in a broad ridge of 90 cm width and 15 cm height. The seedlings which are planted in the furrows must have a spacing of 30 cm for allowing the plants to spread on the broad ridge
1) For killing the early stages, larvae Spray 5% neem seed kernel extract
2) Deploying of 15-20 bird perches ( usually T shaped) per ha helps in inviting insectivorous birds.
3) Apply a Spray of NPV @ 625 LE/ha during the evening hours.
4) Mixed the Jaggery @ 1 kg, sandovit or Teepol(100 ml) with NPV and as per need basis spray 2 ml Endosulfan, Chlorpyriphos or Quinolphos per litre of water
Chopped leaves of Pongamia or Crotalaria application reduces disease severity caused by the nematode.
5) In some areas Farmers uses garlic+ chilly extract and slurry of cow dung + urine for protection against pest and diseases.
a) Soil solarization or partial sterilization of the soil can be done by burning the trash on the soil surface
b) Treatment the seed with 5-10 gms. of Trichoderma or with carbendazim 2 gms. or thirum 3 gms. per kg of seed.
c) Field sanitation
d) Crop rotation with non-solanaceous
e) Providing better drainage, forming raised beds
f) Uproot the heavily infected or virus-infected plants
g) Sanitation and crop rotation reduce the disease incidence
h) Treat the plants by spraying a mixture of Streptocycline 200 ppm and Copper oxychloride 3g per liter of water gives fairly good control of the disease.
A) Cultivation of tomato under shade net;
During summer, the hybrid tomato can be grown in a shade level of 35 percent under paired row planting system (80 x 40 x 60 cm – between pairs, rows and plants) with a basal application of 50 kg each of N and K and 250 kg of P / ha and fertigation of 200 kg each of N and K through straight fertilizers.
Varieties: 30 – 40 t / ha
Hybrids: 80 – 95 t / ha
The Boom flower – N spraying at 2ml / liter in three sprays on 30 days, 55 days, and 75 days of the plant maturity stages which will result in an increase the crop yield.